Asked By: Cyrus Thompson Date: created: Mar 05 2023

What is a good size egg for fertilization

Answered By: Jesse Parker Date: created: Mar 08 2023

What Size Follicles Are Needed for Fertility Treatments? – Outside of the number of follicles, it’s also important to assess follicle size, as this is an indication of the maturity of the egg in the follicle. In a fertility cycle, the ideal size is between 18 and 22 millimeters in diameter.

Once a follicle reaches this size, it means estrogen levels are rising and the uterine lining has thickened. At this point in a medicated cycle, an injection of HCG or Lupron (depending on what treatment you’re undergoing) is typically administered to spur the final stages of the egg’s maturation. Timing Is Everything Leaving things to chance can be fun—but also inefficient.

With over 99.9% accuracy, Bird&Be’s Ovulation Tests predict when you’re about to ovulate.
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What is the normal size of eggs in ovary?

Ultrasound monitoring of ovarian follicular growth during spontaneous cycles in Nigerian women – PubMed Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The,gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in,gov or,mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site. The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Display options Format Abstract PubMed PMID Thirty-nine spontaneous cycles in 34 women (22 patients from the infertility clinic and 12 normal volunteers) were serially studied by ultrasound to monitor follicular growth for ovulation prediction and detection. Ovulation was also confirmed by a mid-luteal phase progesterone assay using WHO match RIA kits. Ovulation occurred from the left ovary in 21 cycles (54%) and from the right ovary in 18 cycles (46%). The maximum follicular diameter prior to ovulation was 21.0 +/- 3.48mm with a range of 15-28 mm. The maximum pre-ovulatory size in the group of infertile patients 21.4mm (range 15-28 mm) was not statistically different from the size in normal volunteers 20.8mm (range 15.5-27mm) (P > 0.05). Bilateral ovulation occurred in two patients. Changes in shape and/or size of the follicle mostly associated with increased internal echoes were the indices of ovulation in 84.7% of cases. Follicular diameter of 15mm may indicate imminent ovulation in Nigerian women. Infertility management procedures such as artificial insemination, timed sexual intercourse may commence just before or once this follicular size has been attained until ovulation is detected.

Abidogun KA, Ojengbede OA, Fatukasi UI. Abidogun KA, et al. Afr J Med Med Sci.1993 Mar;22(1):65-9. Afr J Med Med Sci.1993. PMID: 7839884 Clinical Trial. Adekunle AO, Matson C, Collins WP, Whitehead MI. Adekunle AO, et al. Afr J Med Med Sci.1987 Sep;16(3):157-62. Afr J Med Med Sci.1987. PMID: 2829609 Campbell S. Campbell S. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am.2019 Dec;46(4):683-696. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2019.08.001. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am.2019. PMID: 31677749 Review. Van Voorhis BJ. Van Voorhis BJ. Semin Reprod Med.2008 May;26(3):217-22. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1076140. Semin Reprod Med.2008. PMID: 18504696 Review.

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Is 15 mm egg size for pregnancy?

Follicular diameters in conception cycles with and without multiple pregnancy after stimulated ovulation induction – PubMed Background: Controlled ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (OI-IUI) is associated with multiple pregnancies, which are a cause of much concern. No reliable datasets have shown clear criteria for predicting multiple pregnancy. The aim of this study was to eliminate a number of variables by examining only conception cycles to determine ultrasound criteria posing risks of multiple pregnancy. Methods: 112 OI-IUI conception cycles (multiple pregnancy rate 19.6%) were analysed retrospectively to identify factors that may be used to evaluate multiple pregnancy risk. Analyses of ultrasound data on the day of hCG administration allowed study of the role of primary, secondary and tertiary follicle diameters (FD). Results: There were no multiple pregnancies in cases where there was a single FD > or = 14 mm, and no higher-order pregnancies where the tertiary follicle measured <14 mm. Follicles with an FD of 15 mm showed an 8% attributable implantation rate. Conclusions: Revision of the criteria for administration of the ovulatory dose of hCG should include the concept that follicles of 15 mm diameter may yield a pregnancy. We suggest that rigorous application of such criteria (critical FD of 16 mm combined with secondary FD evidence) will not reduce the programme pregnancy rate, but will reduce the incidence of multiple conceptions. : Follicular diameters in conception cycles with and without multiple pregnancy after stimulated ovulation induction - PubMed View complete answer

What size are eggs when you ovulate?

Egg cell fact #1: The egg is one of the biggest cells in the body. – Egg are larger than any other cell in the human body, at about 100 microns (or millionths of a meter) in diameter, about the same as a strand of hair. That means you could, in theory, see an egg cell with the naked eye.
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Asked By: Bruce James Date: created: Mar 04 2024

Can I get pregnant if my eggs are small

Answered By: Jose Alexander Date: created: Mar 07 2024

Treatment for Low Egg Count – There is currently no known fertility treatment for a low egg count. There’s no known way to make anyone create new eggs. However, you still have numerous options for conceiving even with a diminished ovarian reserve. Female fertility preservation is one of the best immediate options if you’re wondering how to increase fertility,

This involves retrieving your eggs from your ovaries and freezing them for later fertilization. Experts may also recommend ovarian superovulation, a form of ovulation induction in which hormones induce you to ovulate multiple eggs. These eggs can then be collected and frozen or used for in vitro fertilization.

Your doctor may also recommend intrauterine insemination or the use of a donor egg in conjunction with IVF treatment. It is still completely possible to have a low egg count and get pregnant, even without any form of reproductive assistance. If you are having trouble conceiving and are wondering why getting pregnant is so difficult, consider taking a fertility testing kit and/or consult a fertility treatment specialist.
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Asked By: Bruce Foster Date: created: Feb 19 2023

What size egg is normal

Answered By: Bruce Coleman Date: created: Feb 21 2023

United States – The sizing is based by weight per dozen. The most common U.S. size of chicken egg is ‘Large’ and is the egg size commonly referred to for recipes. The following egg masses including shell have been calculated on the basis of the USDA sizing per dozen:

Modern Sizes (US)

Size Minimum mass per egg Cooking Yield (Volume)
Jumbo 70.9 2.5 61 (4.75 )
Very Large or Extra-Large (XL) 63.8 g 2.25 oz. 56 (4 )
Large (L) 56.8 g 2 oz. 46 ml (3.25 tbsp)
Medium (M) 49.6 g 1.75 oz. 43 ml (3 tbsp)
Small (S) 42.5 g 1.5 oz.
Peewee 35.4 g 1.25 oz.

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Which ovary is best for pregnancy?

Abstract – The aim of this study was to evaluate whether frequency of ovulation and fertility potential of oocytes from the two ovaries differed in regularly menstruating women (1057 cycles of 856 fertile women and 1033 cycles of 258 infertile women). For both fertile and infertile women ovulation from the right ovary occurred more often than from the left ovary (55 versus 45%; P: < 0.005). In infertile women follicular phase length was similar for right- and left-sided ovulation. However, infertile women treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in-vitro fertilization (IVF) showed a pregnancy rate in connection with right-sided ovulation (13%) which was higher than that of left-sided (9%). The ratio of pregnancies deriving from the right ovary per total number of pregnancies was similar in infertile and fertile women (64.6%, 73/113 and 63.4%, 361/569 respectively). The ratio of pregnancies from right-sided ovulation (approximately 64%) per total number of pregnancies was higher than that of right-sided ovulation (approximately 55%) during non-pregnant cycles (P: < 0.0001). The implantation rate in right-sided ovulation seemed to be higher than in left-sided one, since IVF data showed a lower frequency (P: = 0.03) of pre-embryo formation from right-sided ovulation than left-sided. Mid-luteal serum oestradiol and testosterone were higher (P: < 0.05) in right-sided ovulation than left-sided. Taken together, in both fertile and infertile women the fertility potential of oocytes from the right ovary surpasses that of the left ovary.

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Asked By: Brian Lopez Date: created: May 14 2024

What is a good ovary size

Answered By: Seth Kelly Date: created: May 17 2024

The normal size of a healthy ovary is 30 mm long, 25 mm wide, and 15 mm thick. In other words, the normal ovary size is 3 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, and 1.5 cm thick (0.8-12.7 cc). In a healthy and normal-sized ovary, the number of egg reserves are likely sufficient.
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Does size matter for pregnancy?

Size matters in male fertility (but not that size)

  • When it comes to male fertility, it turns out that size does matter.
  • The dimension in question is not penis or testicle size, but a measurement known as anogenital distance, or AGD.
  • Men whose AGD is shorter than the median length – around 2 inches (52 mm) – have seven times the chance of being sub-fertile as those with a longer AGD, according to a study published on Friday in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

That distance, measured from the anus to the underside of the scrotum, is linked to male fertility, including semen volume and sperm count, the study found. The shorter the AGD, the more likely a man was to have a low sperm count. ‘Sub-fertile’ means that a man has a sperm count of less than 20 million per milliliter.

  1. According to study author Shanna Swan of the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, the new finding offers the prospect of a relatively simple fertility screening test for men.
  2. “It’s non-invasive and anybody can do it, and it’s not sensitive to the kinds of things that sperm count is sensitive to, like stress or whether you have a cold or whether it’s hot out,” Swan said in a telephone interview.
  3. “If somebody’s got a short AGD, particularly if they have problems conceiving, I would say get to the infertility doctor, because the chances are good that something is wrong.”

But Dr. Natan Bar-Chama, who heads the male reproductive medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, stressed that the study was the first of its kind in humans.

  • “Assessment of AGD as a routine evaluation of one’s fertility is premature,” Bar-Chama, who wasn’t involved in the study, told Reuters Heath.
  • To reach their conclusions, researchers measured the AGDs of 126 men born in or after 1988, a small but statistically significant sample, Swan said.
  • The study did not address what might cause certain men to have short AGD measurements.
  • But previous studies, published in 2005 and 2008, looked at the possible link between mothers who were exposed to chemicals called phthalates during pregnancy and the AGD of their infant and toddler sons.
  • Phthalates are a group of chemicals widely used in industrial and personal care products, including fragrances, shampoos, soaps, plastics, paints and some pesticides.

In these earlier studies, the scientists tested for the presence of phthalates in the pregnant women’s urine. They found that women who had high levels of phthalates in their urine during pregnancy gave birth to sons who were 10 times more likely to have shorter than expected AGDs.
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Asked By: Landon Rogers Date: created: May 09 2023

Can I get pregnant with 13mm egg size

Answered By: Owen Davis Date: created: May 12 2023

The follicle needs to reach maturity size of 18-20 mm. Follicles below 18mm generally do notovulate or release the egg.
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What is the size of follicle on day 14?

On day 14 size of follicle is 26mm*19.2mm and endometrium is 8.4mm.
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Does size matter in egg?

What Size Eggs Should You Use For Baking? Troubleshooting other people’s is one of my favorite pastimes (my own recipes: that’s a different story). I like to go through all of the possibilities—the temperature of the oven, whether the flour was measured by volume or weight, if the butter is European-style or has a high percentage of water—but a sneaky culprit, one I admittedly hadn’t spent much time pondering, is the eggs.

  1. Specifically, the eggs’ size.
  2. In The Good Book of Southern Baking, Kelly Fields, chef and owner of Willa Jean in New Orleans, writes, “There are only two real rules on eggs, y’all: get them fresh and get them local.” But she also goes on to say that all of her recipes call for large eggs.
  3. The same is true of two other baking books that came out this year—Claire Saffitz’s Dessert Person and Melissa Weller’s A Good Bake —and also applies to almost any baking recipe you’ll encounter.

“Large is always a good assumption,” says Jocelyn Drexinger, owner of New Hampshire bakery Mint and Mallow and baker at Nellie’s Free Range. “95–99% of the time, recipes are developed with large eggs.” (Of course, if a recipe is specifically formulated with a certain egg size—one famous Contessa, for example, bakes with extra-large—seek them out for the most successful result.) Egg size matters more in some baking recipes than others.

One good rule of thumb to keep in mind: The more eggs in a recipe, the more size will have a significant impact. As you add more eggs, that difference in weight—~2 ounces for a large compared to ~2 ¼ ounces for an XL and ~2 ½ for a jumbo—is amplified. When a recipe calls for 4 eggs, for example, that small ¼-ounce discrepancy is suddenly a whopping 1 ounce.

You’ll also want to consider whether the eggs are vital for structure and/or flavor. In recipes that rely on eggs for leavening—like, meringues, meringue-based, choux pastry—or for thickening—like and —you need a certain amount of egg for your dessert to reach its intended height, texture, and/or thickness.

Use eggs that are too small and your cake could be under-leavened; too much whipped egg and it could rise dramatically in the oven, then fall when it’s not able to handle the weight of the excess liquid. Eggs also affect the ratio of dry to wet ingredients, which changes the result even if those eggs don’t play a critical role in leavening.

Whereas cookies and cakes made with small eggs can be dry, dense, and crumbly, those made with big ones can be heavy, wet, and rubbery. Some cookies could pancake, while others might turn out overly cakey. Dough that you need to roll out—like for —could be frustratingly wet and sticky.

  • Then there are what Drexinger calls “finicky recipes,” where precision is important, and even a small difference in egg size can make a big change.
  • In these cases—like if you’re making a “high ratio” cake where the weight of sugar is nearly equal to the weight of flour—eggs are vital to the structure of the baked good, holding the sugar, fat, and flour in harmony.

: What Size Eggs Should You Use For Baking?
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Asked By: Jacob Cooper Date: created: May 20 2024

How do you know if your egg is big or small

Answered By: Robert Nelson Date: created: May 23 2024

Small eggs must be a minimum of 18 ounces per dozen. Medium eggs must be a minimum of 21 ounces per dozen. Large eggs must be a minimum of 24 ounces per dozen. Extra-large eggs must be a minimum of 27 ounces per dozen.
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How can I increase my egg size naturally?

Learn How You Can Boost Your Egg Quality While Trying To Conceive What Is The Egg Size For Pregnancy The biological clock is real ladies which means your age impacts your egg quality by lessening your chances of conception and increasing your chances of enduring a pregnancy loss. That’s because, by the time you reach 40, less than half of your eggs are considered “normal”, impacting your odds of pregnancy mainly because of your ovarian environment.

  • The good news is, you can increase your ovarian environment by making some beneficial lifestyle changes.
  • What You Can Do Along with age, your biological family tree greatly determines your chromosomally normal or abnormal egg quality.
  • This can lead to either a healthy conception or a failure to conceive.

Once you are in your later 30’s and 40s, your egg quality unfortunately isn’t as high making ovulation and fertilization more challenging. So if you are trying to conceive (TTC), you should know that good egg quality sets a solid foundation leading the way to a healthy pregnancy, and there are things you can do to boost your egg quality for optimal chances for conception.

Handling stress optimally: When you are stressed, your body releases hormones like cortisol and prolactin which interfere with egg production. Great ways to lower unhealthy stress levels include a yoga or meditation practice, performing gentle exercises like walking and taking warm baths to help you relax.

These also increase blood flow to your reproductive organs and balance your immune system. -Eat healthy foods: Consuming nutritionally rich foods boost egg both health and quality. Incorporate whole grains, lean meats, leafy greens, fresh vegetables, fruit and nuts in your diet to give your body what it needs to support your eggs.

  • Avoid processed foods and meats when possible and limit your salt and sugar intake.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: You should strive for a healthy BMI (body mass index).
  • Excess weight lowers your fertility and the quality of your eggs.
  • Obesity affects your hormonal balance which in turn can inhibit ovulation.

A high-fat, low-carb diet improves overall fertility and egg quality by lowering inflammation (which otherwise reduces blood flow to the ovaries) and balancing your reproductive hormones. Fat also helps by giving your body the energy and cell growth support it needs to conceive.

-Supplement your diet: Consider taking coenzyme Q10, melatonin and fish oil (Omega 3s). These supplements provide antioxidants to boost egg quality, support ovarian function and help you sleep better. Omega 3s preserve fertility and boost egg quality while Q10 provides antioxidants that support your mitochondria.

This gives your body the energy it needs to perform DNA replication to increase high-quality egg production. Taking vitamin A boosts oocyte quality and embryo development, while vitamin E lowers oxidative stress and boosts follicular blood supply (necessary for high-quality eggs).

Also, B vitamins help with DNA synthesis as well. Taking zinc can promote high-quality oocyte development while adding a folate supplement boosts oocyte quality, maturation, fertilization, and implantation. -Get a good night’s sleep: Sleep is directly related to egg quality and fertility. It allows your body to fix cells, restore your energy and secrete hormones like melatonin.

Melatonin is vital to reproductive processes so your body can develop high-quality, healthy eggs as it supports oocyte quality, ovulation and embryo development. This is especially helpful considering melatonin diminishes in women after 40. -Improve your blood flow: Producing blood flow to the body that is oxygen-rich makes for better egg health.

  • Avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water (ideally 64 oz.
  • Each day) is a great goal! You can also boost your blood flow with yoga poses like the lotus, child and reclining hero.
  • Avoid cigarettes: Cigarettes have chemicals that actually mutate your egg cell’s DNA so they aren’t usable for conception while also speeding up egg loss in your ovaries.

-Stay away from caffeine and alcohol: Both of these habits interfere with fertility function, so limit caffeine and avoid alcohol altogether to support your egg quality. -Freeze your eggs now: This is done to ensure their highest quality and chances of conception since your egg quality diminishes with age.

You can counteract that by freezing your eggs now with cryopreservation so that your eggs will stay at the same level of health and quality as the day they were frozen! Call Idaho Fertility Center Today! We hope these lifestyle changes help you in your fertility journey, especially if you are over 40.

Our Idaho Fertility Center team is ready to help you with your efforts to conceive. Our goal is to provide hope and peace of mind as you work on expanding your family. We welcome you to call us in Idaho Falls, ID, today at 208-529-2019! You are never alone on this journey and we are here for you.
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Asked By: Nathaniel Moore Date: created: Jun 19 2023

How can I increase my follicle size in 2 days

Answered By: Joshua Patterson Date: created: Jun 21 2023

The follicles usually start at 5-6 mm and progressively increase until about 20-21 mm before the egg is released a natural remedy for good egg health in females is a diet loaded with leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and healthy fish and meat to help them stay healthy and boost fertility. Stay away from cigarettes.
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What size egg is large?

Difference in Egg Sizes – There’s no doubt about it — Americans adore eggs. In fact, the average citizen ate approximately 267 eggs this year in his or her regular diet, whether in breakfast scrambles, hearty omelets, baked goods, breads, soups, stuffing or other delectable dishes. What Is The Egg Size For Pregnancy But for as much time as we spend buying, cooking and consuming these excellent ingredients, how much do we know about the size and content of the eggs we eat? Even though your carton of eggs appears uniform in shape and size, don’t make the mistake of thinking chickens naturally produce eggs of mostly the same size.

  • In fact, the eggs you find in grocery stores and markets are sorted by grade and weight at the processing facility and packaged in groups of similar sizes before they’re shipped out to be sold.
  • While this gives the illusion of uniformity in terms of size, there’s still a lot of variety among eggs — even the same chickens don’t regularly lay eggs of the same size, even when they eat a specific diet.

So what are the different egg sizes, how much do their contents measure in terms of liquid — and how can you tell the difference? The U.S. classifies its eggs into six size categories based on the weight of a dozen eggs, the standard amount in a carton. What Is The Egg Size For Pregnancy • Peewee : While rare and virtually never sold in grocery stores, peewee eggs measure under 18 ounces per dozen, meaning each egg is only a little over an ounce in volume. These eggs come from extremely young chickens, who lay eggs only infrequently and lay peewee eggs even less often.

  1. It’s unlikely you’ll ever be able to find these eggs in a regular market, so don’t worry about them for cooking purposes.
  2. Small: Small eggs measure approximately 18 ounces per dozen, or 1.5 ounces per egg, and they only come from young hens in the first few months of their laying capabilities.
  3. While these small eggs, sometimes called “pullet” eggs, have a stronger, fuller and more savory flavor, they’re not in consumer demand and are frequently sold to plants for other egg product purposes, so you won’t find them in your local grocery store.
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• Medium : Weighing 21 ounces per dozen and about 1.75 ounces per egg, these eggs are the smallest you’re likely to find on the shelves at your grocery store. When used in cooking, the liquid in the yolk and egg white makes up about three tablespoons.

  • Large : Large eggs weigh about 24 ounces per dozen, or two ounces per egg, and they’re typically the type of egg recipes refer to.
  • Their liquid contents make up 3.25 tablespoons.
  • Extra-large : These eggs weigh 27 ounces or more per dozen and 2.25 ounces per egg.
  • They’ll add about 4 tablespoons each to your batter or mixture.

Medium, large and extra-large eggs are the most common types you’ll find in grocery stores and use in cooking. • Jumbo : Jumbo eggs refer to especially large eggs that measure 30 ounces per dozen or 2.5 ounces per egg. These are relatively rare, but not as unusual as peewee eggs.
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Asked By: Bernard White Date: created: Oct 21 2023

Is 12 mm egg size for pregnancy

Answered By: Cameron Jackson Date: created: Oct 23 2023

Follicles 12 mm or wider greatly increase the chances of achieving a twin or multifetal pregnancy.
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Does the size of an egg affect its quality?

Eggshell quality – What Is The Egg Size For Pregnancy The vast majority of eggs sold in the world are sold in their shell (table eggs), therefore the consumers’ first impression is based on their perception of shell quality. Shell quality can be split up in several categories. Eggshell integrity Defects considered under this category includes cracks and thin shelled, or shell-less eggs.

  • Eggs with cracks are sorted out during the egg grading process as cracked eggs are more prone to microbial contamination.
  • The biggest cause for cracks is via mechanical damage, that could by caused by the birds themselves, or as a result of poor management practices like infrequent egg collection, poor design of the housing system and egg belt or running the feed chain during the peak hours of egg production (disturbing the birds on the nests).

Eggshell strength plays an important role as weaker shelled eggs are more prone to breakages and cracks. Shell strength is affected by a wide range of factors:

Egg size: in general, smaller eggs have stronger shells. Unfortunately, hens have a finite capacity to deposit calcium during eggshell formation and as a result, the same amount of calcium needs to be divided over a larger area.The hens’ age: young hens have a higher chance to produce shell less eggs as their shell glands have not yet matured, besides, young hens have a higher tendency to produce double-yolk eggs during the first weeks of production. As eggs grow bigger when hens are getting older, shell strength goes down (see aboveStress event: a single stress to your flock can be enough to disturb the process of egg formation for several days. Stress can easily result in soft or thin-shelled eggs, or in misshapen eggs. In worse cases, the egg can break while still in the oviduct.Heat stress: high temperatures inside the poultry house often reduce feed intake, and thereby reducing calcium intake which results in an insufficient amount of calcium available for proper eggshell formation.Nutrition: adequate dietary minerals and vitamins are essential for good eggshell quality, the role of drinking water in the supply of minerals and trace elements should not be overlooked. The hens’ diet should be well balanced with the proper amounts of calcium and phosphorus available as calcium and phosphorous are essential in forming the eggshell.Vitamin D: Vitamin D plays an important role in the proper utilization of calcium and phosphorous, a lack of Vitamin D in the diet results in weaker eggshells and weaker bones.Diseases: the most well-known disease affecting eggshell quality is Infectious Bronchitis (IB), which is caused by a coronavirus which attacks the mucus membranes of both the respirator and the reproductive tracts. Also the adenovirus that causes the Egg drop Syndrome (EDS) results in thin-, soft-shelled or shell-less eggs.Genetics: the heritabilities of shell strength are moderate (h² in the range of 0.25 – 0.35). Eggshell breaking strength is an important trait in our breeding programs and intensive genetic selection for more than half a century has resulted in hens that are able to produce eggs with higher breaking strength and maintain these high levels for longer production periods.

Eggshell Texture Rough shells, pimples, pinholes and mottled shells are all eggshell defects associated with the texture of the eggshell. The main factors are:

Disease: Infectious Bronchitis (IB), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and avian encephalomyelitis (AE) can be linked to the occurrence of textural defects.Genetics: in our breeding program we record all these deviations, although heritabilities are low to moderate (h² in the range of 0.05 – 0.25) we make steady progress with every new generation.Management: inadequate water supply, sudden changes in lighting programs, poor ventilation and too high stocking densities can all result in an higher incidence of shell defects.

Shape The shape of an egg is extremely important as the proper egg shape gives a better fit in the egg boxes and egg trays. Misshapen eggs have a shape which differs from the smooth normal shape, think of flat sided eggs, body checked eggs, and the Ping-Pong ball shaped eggs. Main factors related to misshapen eggs are:

Disease: Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS), Avian Influenza (AI) and New Castle Disease (NCD) are all linked to result in a high incidence of misshapen eggs as they negatively affect the albumen quality, whilst the albumen and its surrounding membranes provides the structure on which the eggshell is deposited.Stress: overcrowding, stress, poor lighting patterns and improper handling can result in body checked eggs and flat sided eggs.Age: young birds, with shell glands that are still immature, may produce misshapen eggs.

Color Eggshell color is primarily determined by the breed. Leghorns produce white eggs, Rhode Island Reds brown eggs and a cross between the aforementioned tinted eggs. Besides, there are all the specialty breeds which produce chocolate brown, green or blue eggs. Any factor which causes a disruption will affect the color and the color uniformity of the eggshell. These factors are:

Stress: Epinephrine, a stress hormone, will cause a delay in oviposition and cessation of shell gland cuticle formation, which can cause pale shelled eggs to be produced. Stressors may include, amongst others, high cage density, loud noise and handlingAge of bird: As birds age increases, the intensity of pigment decreases. This may be dueto decreasing production of pigment or increased surface area over which available pigment is distributed.Disease: New Castle Disease (NCD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) are both examples of viruses which affect the mucus membranes of the respiratory and tract. They cause the shell to become abnormally thin and pale.Genetics: eggshell color is heritable, heritabilities are moderate to high (h² in the range of 0.35 – 0.6). Breeding directions are clear: white eggs are selected to become whiter, brown eggs to become darker and to decrease the natural drop in eggshell color as much as possible as the hen is aging.

Cleanliness is probably the easiest aspect of eggshell quality to control; proper management plays an important role in keeping your eggs clean. Most eggs are clean when laid and subsequently become contaminated with fecal material or other contaminants.

Management: Good management practices can help to reduce the number of dirty eggs. These practices include frequent collection of eggs, as well as regular maintenance and cleaning of cage and nest floors, egg belts and roll out trays.Nutrition and gut health: factor which causes diarrhea in the birds will also result in an increase in the number of dirty eggs collected.Blood smears on eggs can be minimized by good pullet management, including weight for age and proper lighting programs. Do not force and stress your hens to come into lay!

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