Asked By: Sebastian Carter Date: created: Dec 11 2023

Who started the Met Office

Answered By: Raymond Martinez Date: created: Dec 11 2023

Fitzroy founds the Met Office (1854) – The Met Office was founded by Vice-Admiral Robert Fitzroy in 1854. Fitzroy was already well known as the captain of HMS Beagle, from her famous journey around the globe. He would go on to establish the science of weather forecasting, the basis of what we still use today.

Asked By: Jason Ward Date: created: Mar 10 2023

Who is Met Office owned by

Answered By: Alan Lopez Date: created: Mar 10 2023

What is the relationship between the Public Weather Service Customer Group and Met Office? – The Met Office is a government Trading Fund Agency owned by the Department for Business Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS). It provides services to the public and the commercial sector.

  • Its core role is its services to the public to deliver the UK’s Public Weather Service (PWS).
  • The Public Weather Service is the means by which the Met Office fulfils its Public Task as the UK’s National Meteorological Service.
  • The Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG) is an independent body which acts as the customer on behalf of the public for free at the point of use weather services and on behalf of Public Sector users of Public Weather Service (PWS) outputs.

It is sponsored by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). The group sets the requirements for the PWS, specifying and monitoring its outputs, including the research, forecast and observational data and international commitments required to deliver current and future services.

When was the UK Met Office founded?

Our History –

The Met Office was founded 1854 as a small department in the Board of Trade under the leadership of Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Robert FitzRoy to advise on weather and marine currents to the marine community.

The library & archive started life as one collection that grew from the very beginnings of the office. Although today our collections are housed separately for good archival reasons they are close in proximity and remain very much a joint complementary collection supported by a close team.

The Library really emerged from the time of Robert Scott the second CE. A first mention of the Library was in 1870 when it contained 1200 volumes and pamphlets.

The early library was mentioned in an article from the 1981 issue of Meteorological Magazine entitled “Reminiscences of the Meteorological Office 1898-1910” where it describes “.the principal part of the library was located in the room of the head of the office Dr RH Scott.over the course of years the accession of books and bound volumes of observations had overflowed into other rooms and the increasing weight of several thousand of marine meteorological logs caused some of the floor joists to sag and it became necessary for iron girders to be put in to hold up the floors”

In 1910 to office moved from Victoria Street (which it outgrew) to Exhibition Road in South Kensington.

A decision taken at a meeting of the Meteorological Committee on 29 April 1914 saw the Met Office accept responsibility for the official custodianship of met related records – to house the charts, weather diaries, original weather records, ships logs and met logs from expeditions.

The 1958 Public Records Act made the Lord Chancellor responsible for the selection and preservation of important public records and in a letter dated 3 May 1962 he designated the Met Office at Bracknell as the official national Place of Deposit for meteorological records. For the first time the Library and Archive were held in separate locations (the library at HQ and the Archive at Eastern Road and then Scott Building).

In 2003 the Library relocated to Met Office HQ in Exeter and in 2005 the National Meteorological Archive was opened to the public at Great Moor House – a building we share with Devon Heritage Centre. We now benefit from purpose built archive repositories and in 2011/12 National Meteorological Archive along with Devon Records Office achieved National Archive approval as a record repository for the first time.

What was the Met Office originally called?

The Met Office was founded in 1854 in response to an international drive to improve knowledge and understanding of maritime meteorology Matthew Fontaine Maury of the US Navy first realised that by collating observations it was possible to derive a much greater understanding of the climatology of the oceans but more data was required to make the resulting charts useful to all sea farers.

An international maritime conference was held in Brussels in 1853 at which governments from across the world agreed to collect and share data in order to benefit from the resulting more complete and accurate charts and the UK Met Office, known then as the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade, was established a year later.

At its head was Met Office founder Rear Admiral Robert FitzRoy. Following a successful career in the Royal Navy during which he accurately charted areas of the Southern Hemisphere for the first time and captained the Beagle during her famous circumnavigation of the world FitzRoy was recommended to lead the fledgling Meteorological Office by his friend and mentor Admiral Beaufort.

FitzRoy established a effective system for collecting data, revolutionised the production of charts including the creation of the earliest wind roses, and founded the science of weather forecasting and the concept of synoptic meteorology. From these early beginnings came the development of many of the fundamental theories of Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, the discovery of Jet Streams, and important developments in Climate Science.

These pages feature some of the key records illustrating the history of the Met Office from its earliest days.

Robert FitzRoy and the early Met Office – a brief history of FitzRoy and the daily weather reports The Royal Charter Gale – an account of the Royal Charter Gale and its consequences for weather forecasting

Asked By: Xavier Sanchez Date: created: Aug 16 2023

Do the BBC still use the Met Office

Answered By: Keith Ward Date: created: Aug 16 2023

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

BBC Weather

Logo used since 2022
Type BBC department
Industry Broadcasting
Headquarters Broadcasting House, London, United Kingdom
Area served United Kingdom Rest of the world
Owner BBC
Website www,bbc,co,uk /weather

BBC Weather is the department of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) responsible for both the preparation and the broadcasting of weather forecasts, On 6 February 2018, BBC Weather changed supplier from the government Met Office to MeteoGroup after an open competition. The Met Office had been the provider of weather information for 94 years.

Is The Met Office the most accurate?

Providing weather forecasts and information to UK citizens is what we live for. The accuracy of our weather forecasts and warnings is essential to this and our operational role as the UK’s National Meteorological Service. We have an open and transparent policy on how our public weather forecasts are performing, to ensure that people can be confident in our ability to keep them safe and able to make the most of the weather.

Asked By: Dominic Garcia Date: created: Aug 10 2023

Where does Met Office get its data

Answered By: Neil Butler Date: created: Aug 11 2023

Synoptic and climate stations The map shows the current network of automatic (synoptic) and manual (climate) stations covering the UK. UK weather stations report a mixture of snapshot hourly observations of the weather known as synoptic observations, and daily summaries of the weather known as climate observations.

  • For instance, hourly temperature is a synoptic observation, but daily maximum and minimum temperature are climate observations; cloud is synoptic but sunshine is climate.
  • Climate observations are made at 0900UTC, with some stations making further climate observations at 2100UTC.
  • In summer these correspond to 1000BST and 2200BST respectively.
You might be interested:  Who Is Garry Glitter?

Observations from around 260 UK automatic (synoptic) stations are collected in real time; climate data from these stations also comes in straight after readings are taken. Climate observations from around 140 co-operating observers at manual climate stations are also received in slower time.

  • All climate stations record daily maximum and minimum air temperature and rainfall amount, recorded over the period 0900-0900UTC (1000-1000BST in summer).
  • Many stations observe additional elements.
  • The representativity of urban observations to the surrounding urban area can be difficult to judge, and so their data need to be used with caution.

Some observations are made from non-standard stations (e.g. located on roof tops) and these are generally not used for routine climate monitoring. : Synoptic and climate stations

Is the Met Office UK only?

The Met Office is the national meteorological service for the UK. We provide critical weather services and world-leading climate science, helping you make better decisions to stay safe and thrive. “We want to be bold about how far-reaching and ambitious we should be, and really focus on staying fit for the future at a time of change.” Penny Endersby, Chief Executive

Is Met Office military?

Changes of ministry – Following a machinery of government change, the Met Office became part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills on 18 July 2011, and subsequently part of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy following the merger of BIS and the Department of Energy and Climate Change on 14 July 2016.

Which city is the Met Office based in?

To discover more about the weather forecasting and climate research, come on a guided tour of our modern headquarters in Exeter, which includes a visit to the National Meteorological Library. The talks and tour should last about 2 hours and 30 minutes, after which you will be free to look around yourself or use our café.

  1. As part of the visit we may ask you about your thoughts on some of the services we provide to the public, this is totally voluntary but may help us to shape our services in the future.
  2. Tickets will be issued on a first-come, first-served basis with a maximum of four tickets per person.
  3. In order to meet our security requirements, tickets will be named; therefore we must be notified of any name changes that you wish to make no later than 72 hours prior to your arrival.

Those without a ticket or a ticket not in their name will be refused entry. Some form of ID will be required, Although children will be able to attend we have decided to have a lower age limit of 10 in order to meet our Health and Safety requirements.

Why is the Met Office useful?

Our work supports government, businesses, emergency responders and the public to make informed decisions to keep people safe and the UK able to thrive. We collaborate with organisations around the world to provide vital weather and climate services and advance global understanding through research.

Who invented meteorology?

Aristotelian meteorology – These early observations would form the basis for Aristotle ‘s Meteorology, written in 350 BC. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle,

His work would remain an authority on meteorology for nearly 2,000 years. The book De Mundo (composed before 250 BC or between 350 and 200 BC) noted: If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt; if it is only half of fire, but violent also and massive, it is called a meteor ; if it is entirely free from fire, it is called a smoking bolt.

They are all called ‘swooping bolts’ because they swoop down upon the Earth. Lightning is sometimes smoky and is then called ‘smoldering lightning”; sometimes it darts quickly along and is then said to be vivid, At other times, it travels in crooked lines, and is called forked lightning,

When it swoops down upon some object it is called ‘swooping lightning’ After Aristotle, progress in meteorology stalled for a long time. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs, as well as On Winds, He gave hundreds of signs for weather phenomena for a period up to a year.

His system was based on dividing the year by the setting and the rising of the Pleiad, halves into solstices and equinoxes, and the continuity of the weather for those periods. He also divided months into the new moon, fourth day, eighth day and full moon, in likelihood of a change in the weather occurring.

  • The day was divided into sunrise, mid-morning, noon, mid-afternoon and sunset, with corresponding divisions of the night, with change being likely at one of these divisions.
  • Applying the divisions and a principle of balance in the yearly weather, he came up with forecasts like that if a lot of rain falls in the winter, the spring is usually dry.

Rules based on actions of animals are also present in his work, like that if a dog rolls on the ground, it is a sign of a storm. Shooting stars and the Moon were also considered significant. However, he made no attempt to explain these phenomena, referring only to the Aristotelian method.

Is Met Office more accurate than BBC?

Comments –

    I trust BBC weather for my area. Seems pretty accurate most of the time.2 Mark C Posts: 19,059 Forum Member ✭✭ What weather site do you find the most accurate? Maybe none The BBC weather is completely different from Metoffice for my area. One says snow, heavy at times and the other say no snow or rain at all. Aside from looking out the window, which sites do you find most accurate? When it comes to forecasting snow in the scenario we have this week, it’s down to a fraction of a degree whether it snows or rains.

    Basically, no one can say either way with any certainty. Prepare for the worst, hope for the best ! 3 I trust BBC weather for my area. Seems pretty accurate most of the time. me too 0 I use both Met Office and BBC Weather apps on my phone. They can both be wrong but I find that the Met Office one is more accurate, more often.

    Pity that the UI (for the Met Office one) is so poor and the widget(s) equally bad. BBC layout and widget is way better.3 What weather site do you find the most accurate? Maybe none The BBC weather is completely different from Metoffice for my area. One says snow, heavy at times and the other say no snow or rain at all. Aside from looking out the window, which sites do you find most accurate? When it comes to forecasting snow in the scenario we have this week, it’s down to a fraction of a degree whether it snows or rains. Andrue Posts: 23,246 Forum Member ✭✭✭ Torch81 Posts: 14,707 Forum Member ✭✭ I tend to find the BBC one to be a bit rubbish personally and rarely correct. I have AccuWeather on my phone and MSN on my laptop, both of which are generally more accurate.1 The UK is far too varied to give any kind of accuracy to forecasts, I’ve seen bright sunshine and blue skies out front, and at the same time heavy snow falling out the back – so pick the forecast you like, and then find the right window to match it 1 Meteorology is not an exact science so none of the weather sites is accurate all the time. Even if one of them was shown to be statistically more accurate, it still can’t be relied upon to be correct on any particular occasion. I currently use the weather&radar app on my phone but just see it as a rough forecast of what will happen.0 Turned out the Metoffice was spot on with the snow. neys Posts: 3,204 Forum Member ✭✭✭ Every site is never 100% right in the weather forecast but the BBC is more accurate than most others. I find. I got the BBC weather app as well as the Yahoo weather app on my iPhone and IPad. Also the iOS weather app that comes with iPad and iPhone,

    Also use Alexa on the Amazon Echos for the weather but find the weather on Alexa is sometimes only 95% accurate. Some sites say my area may get snow tomorrow. While other sites say it will be partly cloudy morrow and sleet on Friday. So will just have to wait and see.1 Every site is never 100% right in the weather forecast but the BBC is more accurate than most others.

    I find. I got the BBC weather app as well as the Yahoo weather app on my iPhone and IPad. Also the iOS weather app that comes with iPad and iPhone, Also use Alexa on the Amazon Echos for the weather but find the weather on Alexa is sometimes only 95% accurate.

    1. Some sites say my area may get snow torrow.
    2. While other sites say it will be partly cloudy morrow and sleet on Friday.
    3. So will just have to wait and see.
    4. I used to find the BBC accurate but less so recently or its updated less frequently.
    5. As I mentioned the Metoffice said snow and the BBC didn’t mention it.

    We are now covered wirh snow and still no mention on the BBC. I appreciate its difficult to predict snow but it’s now been snowing for hours. My daughter always uses Alexa for the weather. I’m not sure what service they use, maybe Accuweather? 2 Also use Alexa on the Amazon Echos for the weather but find the weather on Alexa is sometimes only 95% accurate.

    I love Alexa, but the weather forecasts are completely useless – it’s common to be looking out the window watching the snow falling, and if you ask “Alexa, will it snow today” she most often replies “No, it won’t snow today” – same with anything else, and what forecasts she does give tend to be extremely vague.

    So never base your umbrella carrying on Alexa saying it won’t rain 0 Also use Alexa on the Amazon Echos for the weather but find the weather on Alexa is sometimes only 95% accurate. I love Alexa, but the weather forecasts are completely useless – it’s common to be looking out the window watching the snow falling, and if you ask “Alexa, will it snow today” she most often replies “No, it won’t snow today” – same with anything else, and what forecasts she does give tend to be extremely vague. Yes agree I have Alexa and Google they both say different for each day and both are way out even with the current temp 0 c4rv Posts: 28,972 Forum Member ✭✭✭ AccuWeather is pretty accurate for me and granular enough that it has different weather for mine and nearby towns.0 I never trust any of them. I go down to the harbour, speak to one of the old lags – and his forecast is always spot on.

    He simply stands up, turns 360 degrees, sits down again and tells you the weather for the next 3 to4 days.1 I find a pine cone is more accurate than any weather forecast.1 I tend to use the BBC by default. As someone else has said, the UK is a very hard place to predict the weather because its SO changeable.

    Additionally I live on the coast so I can basically see the weather fronts approaching from by back garden! I tend to just go by that to be honest. Around here it can be dry one minute and I’ll spot a rain front coming in over the sea, drenching our house a few minutes before it travels further into the town! 0 I’ve dropped the BBC and just use the MetOffice now, it seems more accurate more often.2 zx50 Posts: 89,623 Forum Member ✭✭✭ I would have thought the Met Office. I do use the BBC’s weather section but I might sometimes try the Met Office’s site.0 d’@ve Posts: 45,066 Forum Member ✭ None of them are perfect, and likely never will be as that is impossible in such a complex system as the global atmosphere. But they all have enough accuracy to be actually useful to anyone who cares and is willing to look beyond the “apps” – and I include in that the BBC and Met Office’s online ‘app’ services.

    To be fair, the apps can be very handy and sometimes they work just fine, but the best way to get your weather right for the day ahead is to watch and listen to the TV and radio forecasts with both National weather presenters and regional presenters – both of whom will explain the broader picture – and any uncertainties.

    There are always uncertainties for somewhere in the UK. BBC forecasts (but not warnings) are based on data from a US weather company DTN, which owns the European based Meteogroup – which itself is owned by a Private Equity investment company called TBG AG (Swiss based).

    1. These are global outfits and are pretty good at what they do but are likely to be less good at the local level as the UK’s national forecaster the Met Office.
    2. There won’t be much in it though – and different days will produce different results.
    3. BBC warnings (not forecasts) are from the Met Office.
    4. So I keep an eye on both – with a slight preference for the Met Office – but you really do need to avoid clickable automated “apps” (from anyone) if you want the best chance of understanding what’s likely to happen weatherwise tomorrow or in the days ahead.

    Accuracy steadily reduces after ‘tomorrow’, and beyond 5 to 7 days, they will all get some of the details wrong – sometimes everything wrong everywhere! 5 neys Posts: 3,204 Forum Member ✭✭✭ Also use Alexa on the Amazon Echos for the weather but find the weather on Alexa is sometimes only 95% accurate. I love Alexa, but the weather forecasts are completely useless – it’s common to be looking out the window watching the snow falling, and if you ask “Alexa, will it snow today” she most often replies “No, it won’t snow today” – same with anything else, and what forecasts she does give tend to be extremely vague. Alexa the now is saying its snowing in my area the now but its more like sleet here than snow. Sleet is forecast for my area tomorrow Alexa says. Yet the BBCis saying small chance of light snow showers. The BBC and Alexa are both saying light snow showers for Saturday night and though the night in to Sunday but we will see, 0 Looking out the window is usually the most accurate way to tell the weather 2 neys Posts: 3,204 Forum Member ✭✭✭ Did end up have a light dusting of snow in my area overnight.0

Is the Met Office worldwide?

We now provide forecasts for around 7000 locations around the world as well as forecasts for the UK, helping you to plan and enjoy your travels. All world forecast information is gathered together on the world forecast page. For each location we provide three-hourly forecasts of weather, temperature, wind speed and direction, UV and feels like temperature.

Why did Met Office move to Exeter?

Why we relocated to Exeter – In 2003 we relocated from several sites in Bracknell to state-of-the-art premises in Exeter, because we wanted to improve the effectiveness of our operations and develop new products and services. We chose Exeter for various reasons including the quality of life, local labour market and land prices.

Asked By: Fred Moore Date: created: Jan 03 2024

Does the Met Office use satellites

Answered By: Charles Long Date: created: Jan 06 2024

Polar orbiting satellites – By contrast, polar orbiting satellites at a typical height of 850 km are much closer to the earth allowing their instruments to make measurements at far greater resolution. Orbiting the earth about every 100 minutes, they scan wide swathes of the atmosphere as they sweep from pole to pole.

Is AccuWeather more accurate?

The study analyzed 120 million forecasts from over 1,000 locations globally over a four-year period ending December 31, 2018, and AccuWeather was found to be the clear winner as the most accurate provider of weather forecasts in temperature, precipitation and wind speed – a clean sweep of all categories – for a 1-5

How far ahead can the Met Office predict the weather?

Medium-range weather forecasts (3-10 days) – Medium-range weather forecasts cover anything from around 3 to 10 days ahead. The UK medium-range outlook is covered in the five-day, Seven day forecast and UK rainfall radar forecasts as well as the Regional forecast forecasts.

The regional 3-5 day text forecasts provide a general picture of the weather on a day-by-day basis, with the main regional variations identified. The Met Office has a good track record in advising on any significant risk of severe weather in this period. The 6-15 day text forecasts provide a broad description of the weather likely to be affecting the UK, including significant changes in the type of weather.

It also provides a risk assessment of severe weather, such as heavy rainfall, severe gales or an extended period of high or low temperatures. When looking at forecasts up to 10 days in the future the chaotic nature of the atmosphere begins to play a larger part – small events currently over the Atlantic can have potentially significant impacts on our weather in the UK in several days time.

Asked By: Logan Sanchez Date: created: May 20 2023

What is the most accurate weather forecast in Europe

Answered By: Bernard Turner Date: created: May 23 2023

Operational forecast model – ECMWF’s operational forecasts are produced from its ” Integrated Forecast System ” (sometimes informally known in the United States as the “European model”) which is run every twelve hours and forecasts out to ten days. It includes both a “deterministic forecast” mode and an ensemble,

The deterministic forecast is a single model run that is relatively high in resolution as well as in computational expense. The ensemble is relatively low (about half that of the deterministic) in resolution (and in computational expense), so less accurate. But it is run 51 times in parallel, from slightly different initial conditions to give a spread of likelihood over the range of the forecast.

As of 2021, the ECMWF’s weather model is generally considered to be the most accurate weather forecasting model.

What is the percentage on Met Office?

Top Trending Stories Today – He said: “Certainly for the Met Office app, the percentage of rain means the chance of rain at that time for that location.” He added: “So 60 percent means a 60 percent chance of rain, 40 percent chance of dry. “There are different ways of expressing percentages and in the USA they do use the area one, but generally not here in the UK.

  • So if you’ve got the Met Office app, that’s one less thing to worry about; mind unblown.” On the Met Office website, it states: “In weather forecasting, suppose the Met Office says that the probability of rain tomorrow in your region is 80 percent.
  • They aren’t saying that it will rain in 80 per cent of the land area of your region, and not rain in the other 20 per cent.

Nor are they saying it will rain for 80 per cent of the time. “What they are saying is there is an 80 per cent chance of rain occurring at any one place in the region, such as in your garden.” Don’t miss the latest news from around Scotland and beyond – Sign up to our daily newsletter here,

What happened to Robert FitzRoy?

Robert FitzRoy, c.1860 (Alexander Turnbull Library, PAColl-6075-33) Robert FitzRoy, the second governor of New Zealand, took his own life at his home in Surrey. Opinion on his governorship has always been divided. While the writer Steve Braunias described FitzRoy as ‘our first great wretch’, historian Ian Wards argued that his achievements were ‘considerable’ and blamed the Colonial Office for his shortcomings as governor.

A naval officer, FitzRoy took command of HMS Beagle in 1831. The observations of the naturalist Charles Darwin during its five-year voyage around the world were crucial to the development of the theory of natural selection. The Beagle visited the Bay of Islands, which Darwin described as ‘not a pleasant place’.

FitzRoy’s tenure as governor from December 1843 to November 1845 was dominated by deteriorating race relations. His failure to punish Ngāti Toa for the Wairau incident, in which 22 Nelson settlers were killed, angered colonists. FitzRoy concluded that the settlers had been largely to blame – and in any case, he lacked the resources to respond with force.

With the colony virtually bankrupt and lacking troops, FitzRoy had to rely on ‘moral suasion’. He further alienated New Zealand Company settlers by suggesting – with good reason – that the company had no legitimate title to the land it claimed in the Wairau Valley. In March 1845 the powerful Ngāpuhi chief Hōne Heke attacked the British flagstaff at Kororāreka and then sacked the town.

FitzRoy’s effectiveness as governor was again questioned. By the end of the year FitzRoy had been replaced by George Grey. Nelson settlers celebrated by burning him in effigy. FitzRoy retired from active service in 1850 and was elected to the Royal Society in 1851.

  1. In 1854 he became chief of a new meteorological department of the Board of Trade.
  2. He instituted a system of storm warnings and published the first regular daily weather reports and forecasts.
  3. By 1865 FitzRoy was in financial difficulties, physically and mentally exhausted, and suffering from depression.

On Sunday 30 April he rose from his bed, bolted the door to his dressing room and slit his throat with a razor.

Is the Met Office British?

The Met Office is the national meteorological service for the UK. We provide critical weather services and world-leading climate science, helping you make better decisions to stay safe and thrive. “We want to be bold about how far-reaching and ambitious we should be, and really focus on staying fit for the future at a time of change.” Penny Endersby, Chief Executive

Where does the Met Office get its data from?

Synoptic and climate stations The map shows the current network of automatic (synoptic) and manual (climate) stations covering the UK. UK weather stations report a mixture of snapshot hourly observations of the weather known as synoptic observations, and daily summaries of the weather known as climate observations.

  • For instance, hourly temperature is a synoptic observation, but daily maximum and minimum temperature are climate observations; cloud is synoptic but sunshine is climate.
  • Climate observations are made at 0900UTC, with some stations making further climate observations at 2100UTC.
  • In summer these correspond to 1000BST and 2200BST respectively.

Observations from around 260 UK automatic (synoptic) stations are collected in real time; climate data from these stations also comes in straight after readings are taken. Climate observations from around 140 co-operating observers at manual climate stations are also received in slower time.

  • All climate stations record daily maximum and minimum air temperature and rainfall amount, recorded over the period 0900-0900UTC (1000-1000BST in summer).
  • Many stations observe additional elements.
  • The representativity of urban observations to the surrounding urban area can be difficult to judge, and so their data need to be used with caution.

Some observations are made from non-standard stations (e.g. located on roof tops) and these are generally not used for routine climate monitoring. : Synoptic and climate stations

What did FitzRoy invent?

Robert Fitzroy, (born July 5, 1805, Ampton Hall, near Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, Eng.—died April 30, 1865, Norwood, Surrey), British naval officer, hydrographer, and meteorologist who commanded the voyage of HMS Beagle, which sailed around the world with Charles Darwin aboard as naturalist.

The voyage provided Darwin with much of the material on which he based his theory of evolution. Fitzroy entered the Royal Navy in 1819 and, after service in the Mediterranean and in South American waters, received command of the 240-ton brig Beagle in 1828. He surveyed the South American coast around Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, returning to England in 1830.

On Dec.27, 1831, Fitzroy sailed from Portsmouth in the Beagle with Darwin aboard. The expedition visited the Cape Verde Islands, the South American coast, the Strait of Magellan, the Galápagos Islands, Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, the Maldives, and Mauritius before returning to England on Oct.2, 1836.

  • In 1839 Fitzroy published two volumes of Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty’s Ships Adventure and Beagle Between the Years 1826 and 1836, Describing Their Examination of the Southern Shores of South America, and the Beagle’s Circumnavigation of the Globe,
  • A third volume, popularly known as The Voyage of the Beagle, was published by Darwin in 1839.

A member of Parliament for Durham (1841), Fitzroy became governor of New Zealand in 1843 but was recalled in 1845 largely because he contended that Maori land claims were as valid as those of the settlers. He retired from active duty in 1850 and from 1854 devoted himself to meteorology,

He devised a storm warning system that was the prototype of the daily weather forecast, invented a barometer, and published The Weather Book (1863). Fitzroy was a strongly religious man. During the 1831–36 voyage, he continually resisted Darwin’s growing doubts about special creation and the fixity of species.

Interactions with Fitzroy, however, helped Darwin clarify his views about evolution and anticipate many objections to his theory prior to its publication. Fitzroy was present at the famous meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1860 at which T.H.

  1. Huxley successfully defended Darwin’s Origin of Species from attack by Samuel Wilberforce, the bishop of Oxford,
  2. Fitzroy’s attempt at that meeting to support Wilberforce against Huxley led to ridicule,
  3. His death was by suicide, during a period of mental turmoil, partly induced by the growing success of the idea of evolution.

This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty,