Asked By: Jayden Taylor Date: created: Apr 24 2024

What does the Secretary of the Commonwealth do

Answered By: Douglas White Date: created: Apr 24 2024

Our office is responsible for the maintenance of public records, administration of elections, storage of historical data, preservation of historical sites, registration of corporations, and the filing and distribution of regulations and public documents.

What is the structure of Commonwealth?

The Commonwealth differs from other international bodies such as the United Nations or the World Trade Organization, It has no formal constitution or bylaws. The members have no legal or formal obligation to one another; they are held together by shared traditions, institutions, and experiences as well as by economic self-interest.

Commonwealth action is based upon consultation between members, which is conducted through correspondence and through conversations in meetings. Each member country sends an emissary, called a high commissioner, to the capitals of the other members. The member states’ heads of government make up the primary decision-making component of the Commonwealth.

The Head of the Commonwealth, a title historically belonging to the British Crown, is largely ceremonial. Succession to the post is non-hereditary and is determined by the Heads of Government. The Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by a secretary-general, organizes and coordinates Commonwealth activities and facilitates relations between member states.

  • The Secretariat is responsible to the Board of Governors, composed of the member states’ high commissioner to the United Kingdom.
  • At high-level international events, the Commonwealth is represented by the Chair-in-Office, which rotates between member states every two years.
  • A Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting is held every two years.

At the meeting in Singapore in 1971, members adopted a declaration that restated the Commonwealth’s voluntary and cooperative nature and committed the organization to promoting international peace, fighting racism, opposing colonial domination, and reducing inequities in wealth.

  1. This declaration was echoed at the meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 1991, when leaders further committed the organization to human rights and democracy,
  2. In 2011, in Perth, Australia, leaders tasked the Commonwealth with drafting a charter; the charter—which enshrined core principles such as democracy, human rights, freedom of expression, sustainable development, access to health and education, and gender equality—was adopted at the close of 2012.

Britain has huge overseas investments, both government and private, in the Commonwealth. When Britain joined the European Economic Community (later succeeded by the European Union ) in 1973, the trade privileges of member countries began to be reduced.

Now Commonwealth members have trade agreements with the EU. Malta and Cyprus are members of both the Commonwealth and the EU; they remained in the EU even after Britain left in 2020. Many of the exports of Commonwealth countries go to other member countries. In 1996 the Commonwealth Africa Investment Fund was established to increase investment in that continent,

There are also significant educational links between members, as many British teachers travel overseas and many students from Commonwealth members study in Britain. Other cultural links include the Commonwealth Games, a sporting competition held every four years.

Are there 53 or 54 countries in the Commonwealth?

View and download a map of the 56 Commonwealth member countries.

Do Commonwealth countries Recognise the Queen?

After the death of her father King George VI and her accession to the throne, Queen Elizabeth II became Head of the Commonwealth, recognised by Commonwealth leaders in that capacity. Throughout Her Majesty’s reign, the Commonwealth grew from just eight nations to 54 members representing two billion people.

What is the power of Queen in Commonwealth?

The monarch has no power with respect to commonwealth countries. In fact the only function the monarch plays is to appoint the Governor General and they do this on the advice of the Commonwealth Countries government.

Does the Queen own the countries in the Commonwealth?

Which countries recognise Queen Elizabeth as head of state?

  • Barbados is set to become the latest Commonwealth country to become a republic – removing Queen Elizabeth II as head of state.
  • Prime Minister Mia Mottley said it was time to “fully leave our colonial past behind”.
  • In a short statement, Buckingham Palace said that Barbados’s plan to remove the Queen as its head of state is a “matter for the government and people” of the country.
  • In recent years, conversations over the role as ruler of the Commonwealth realm nations have gained traction – with countries such as Jamaica proposing to replace her as head of state.
  • But what is the Queen’s current position, and how much power does she have over the remaining Commonwealth countries that still recognise her as monarch?
You might be interested:  Who Was In Queen?

Image: The Queen with governor-general of Barbados Dame Sandra Mason in 2018

  1. In which countries is Queen Elizabeth II head of state?
  2. At one time, the Queen was the recognised head of state for all the Commonwealth countries – meaning she ruled over them in the same ceremonial way she does in the UK.
  3. Its roots go back to the British Empire when countries around the world were ruled by Britain.

Please use Chrome browser for a more accessible video player 1:06 July: Queen reacts to her new portrait The London Declaration of 1949 marked the birth of the modern Commonwealth, and recognised King George VI as head. Following his death, the Commonwealth leaders recognised Queen Elizabeth II in that capacity.

  • The Queen is head of state of 16 countries that are a part of the Commonwealth realm, including the UK.
  • These include Australia, Canada and New Zealand, as well as several island nations in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean.
  • These are Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Saint Lucia, Solomon Islands, St Kitts and Nevis, and St Vincent and the Grenadines.
  • There are also a host of overseas territories linked to the UK, Australia and New Zealand that are not in the Commonwealth but still have the Queen as head of state.
  • These are numerous but include Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cook Islands, Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and Turks and Caicos, to name a few.

Image: The Queen and Prince Philip drive through Barbados in 1966

  1. Which countries have removed the Queen as head of state?
  2. Several countries dropped the Queen from the role in the years after they gained independence, usually replacing her with a prime minister.
  3. is the latest, although the Queen will remain in the role until November 2021.
  4. It’s not the first Caribbean country to do this.

Image: Queen Elizabeth ll smiles with a young girl in Barbados in 1977

  • Guyana did the same in 1970, Trinidad and Tobago followed suit in 1976, and Dominica in 1978.
  • The last to do so was Mauritius nearly three decades ago in 1992.
  • Barbados joins 38 other Commonwealth countries with a head of state other than Elizabeth II.
  • Jamaica could be next to follow suit – in 2016, the country’s parliament considered a constitutional amendment to remove the Queen as the nation’s monarch.
  • Australia has had several high-profile debates on the issue.

The nation nearly embraced republicanism in a 1999 referendum, but 54.9% of those who voted in favour of keeping the Queen. Image: Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip wave to well-wishers during a Commonwealth visit to Australia in 1954

  1. What power does the Queen have as head of state?
  2. Each Commonwealth country functions independently of the Queen, with its own elected governors and laws.
  3. As head of state the Queen has no real power, although she is recognised as the ceremonial ruler, like in the UK.
  4. Where she is a head of state, a governor-general acts as the Queen’s representative.
  5. They carry out the ceremonial day-to-day duties the Queen would usually be expected to do such as appointing ministers, ambassadors, and giving royal assent to legislation.

Image: The Queen on a visit to Jamaica in 1983

  • Governors-general are elected or chosen by the country’s parliament, cabinet or prime minister and all formally appointed by the Queen.
  • On the advice of a Commonwealth realm’s government, almost all governors-general are knighted by the Queen as an accepted norm and accorded the title Dame when female and Sir when male.
  • Canada and Australia are the exceptions to this.

: Which countries recognise Queen Elizabeth as head of state?

Asked By: Gordon Peterson Date: created: Jan 11 2024

What happens if the Queen dies to the Commonwealth

Answered By: Isaac Miller Date: created: Jan 13 2024

What does the Queen’s death mean for the Commonwealth? – ABC News

  • Queen Elizabeth II was head of the Commonwealth for as long as she reigned.
  • The title isn’t inherited, but Commonwealth members have already agreed that King Charles should succeed the Queen.
  • Her death doesn’t change a lot about how the Commonwealth runs, but it could prompt the question of whether it has a purpose, experts say.
  • It’s a “watershed moment”, which may spark a rethink of the Commonwealth’s role, according to constitutional law expert Anne Twomey.
  • Philip Murphy, former head of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, said the organisation lent on the monarch for legitimacy, but had achieved “nothing tangible” on its own.
You might be interested:  Who Has Left The Jungle?

Which countries left the Commonwealth?

Ireland and Zimbabwe are the only republic states to have withdrawn from the Commonwealth entirely. In 1948 and 2003 respectively. Here is a list of Commonwealth republics and the year they first joined the Commonwealth: Bangladesh (1972)

What are the benefits of being in the Commonwealth?

Benefits of membership – Commonwealth member countries benefit from being part of a mutually supportive community of independent and sovereign states, aided by more than 80 Commonwealth organisations. The Commonwealth Secretariat, established in 1965, supports Commonwealth member countries to achieve development, democracy and peace.

We are a voice for small and vulnerable states and a champion for young people. We help to strengthen governance, build inclusive institutions and promote justice and human rights. Our work helps to grow economies and boost trade, empower young people, and address threats such as climate change, debt and inequality.

We provide training and technical assistance and support decision-makers to draw up legislation and deliver policies. We deploy experts and observers who offer impartial advice and solutions to national problems. We also provide systems, software and research for managing resources.

Asked By: Isaiah Phillips Date: created: Mar 13 2023

Who is the right Honourable Patricia Scotland QC

Answered By: Jason Bryant Date: created: Mar 16 2023

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Her Excellency The Right Honourable The Baroness Scotland of Asthal PC KC
Scotland in 2018
6th Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations
Assumed office 1 April 2016
  • Elizabeth II
  • Charles III
  • Joseph Muscat (Malta)
  • Theresa May (UK)
  • Boris Johnson (UK)
  • Paul Kagame (Rwanda)
Preceded by Kamalesh Sharma
Attorney General for England and Wales
In office 28 June 2007 – 11 May 2010
Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Preceded by Peter Goldsmith
Succeeded by Dominic Grieve
Junior ministerial offices


Further offices held

/td> Personal details Born 19 August 1955 (age 68) Dominica, British Leeward Islands Political party Labour Alma mater

  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • University College London
  • Middle Temple
Occupation Diplomat Profession Barrister

Patricia Janet Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, PC, KC (born 19 August 1955), is a British diplomat, barrister and politician, serving as the sixth secretary-general of the Commonwealth of Nations, She was elected at the 2015 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting and took office on 1 April 2016.

Why is Virginia a Commonwealth?

Questions about Virginia.

  1. Was Virginia the site of the first Thanksgiving?
  2. What native tribes originally inhabited Virginia? Are any still here?
  3. What is the meaning of the name Virginia?
  4. Virginia state emblems, symbols, seal, animals, song, etc.
  5. What is Virginia’s state nickname?
  6. Why is Virginia called a commonwealth? What other states are commonwealths?
  7. Where can I find statistics about the population of Virginia cities and counties and other types of statistics – schools (SOLs), taxes, etc.?

1 Was Virginia the site of the first Thanksgiving? Arguably, yes. According to It Happened First In Virginia, by William O. Foss, pp.240-243, “The first Thanksgiving in America took place on December 4, 1619, at the Berkeley Hundred, a plantation located on the James River, halfway between Richmond and Williamsburg.

  • Powhatan/Pamunkey tribes speaking an Algonquian language;
  • Siouan-speaking tribes in the piedmont – the Saponi, Tutelo, Occaneechi, Monacan, and Manahoac;
  • Iroquoian-speaking Nottoways and Meherrins south of the James River.

Today, some fifteen thousand descendants of five Powhatan tribes (the Chickahominy, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Pamunkey, and Rappahannock) as well as of several other Indian groups reside in Virginia, some of them on the Pamunkey and Mattaponi reservations in King William County.

Although the land that became the commonwealth of Virginia was home to numerous Native American tribes, only eight since the early twentieth century have maintained active, formally organized tribal governments recognized by the Virginia General Assembly: the Chickahominy and the Chickahominy Eastern Division, the Mattaponi and Upper Mattaponi, the Monacan, Nansemond, and Pamunkey, and the United Rappahannock.

While the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, and Upper Mattaponi live primarily in King William County, the Chickahominy and Chickahominy Eastern Division are in Charles City and New Kent Counties, respectively. The Monacans reside primarily in Amherst County, on or near Bear Mountain; the Nansemonds in Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach; and the United Rappahannock in an area between the Rappahannock and Mattaponi Rivers in Essex, King and Queen, and Caroline Counties.” See also “Indian Virginians” – A Resource Guide on the Library of Virginia website for further information.3 What is the meaning of the name Virginia? “Virginia was named for Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was known as the Virgin Queen.

Historians think the English adventurer Sir Walter Raleigh suggested the name about 1584. That year, Elizabeth gave Raleigh permission to colonize the Virginia region.” Source: Jordan, Daniel P. and Robert W. Morrill. “Virginia: Old Dominion.” World Book Encyclopedia, Vol.20, p.398. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2001.4 Virginia state emblems, symbols, seal, animals, song, etc.

For information on the Symbols and Emblems of the Commonwealth, including many “official state” designees, visit Capitol Classroom, The state of Virginia no longer has an official state song. History of Virginia’s old state song and search for a new one can be found on the 1998 State Song Competition page.

  • The choice of a new state song has been postponed.5 What is Virginia’s state nickname? From the Hornbook of Virginia History, 4th ed., page 88: The most popular and enduring of Virginia’s many nicknames is the Old Dominion.
  • While this name clearly refers to Virginia’s status as England’s oldest colony in the Americas, it is impossible to trace the origin of the term with precision.

In 1660 Charles II acknowledged a gift of silk from “our auntient dominion of Virginia.” In 1663 Virginia’s new seal bore the motto En dat Virginia Quintum (Behold, Virginia gives the fifth), recognizing the colony’s status alongside the king’s other four dominions of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.

  1. As early as 1699, the phrase “most Ancient Colloney and Dominion” appeared in official state documents.
  2. For the origin and meaning of the term “The Commonwealth of Virginia” see question 1 in the Government section below.
  3. Other nicknames for Virginia include Mother of Presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, and Wilson), Mother of States (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin), Mother of Statesmen, and the Cavalier State.6 Why is Virginia called a commonwealth? What other states are commonwealths? According to the Hornbook of Virginia History, 4th ed., page 88: “A commonwealth is ‘a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people.’ The term as an official designation was first used in Virginia during the Interregnum (1649-1660), the period between the reigns of Charles I and Charles II during which parliament’s Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector established a republican government known as the Commonwealth of England.

Virginia became a royal colony again in 1660, and the word commonwealth was dropped from the governor’s full title. When Virginia adopted its first constitution in 1776, the term commonwealth was reintroduced, most likely to emphasize that Virginia’s new government was based upon the sovereignty of the people united for the common good, or common weal.

The designation commonwealth of Virginia has been used in official records ever since. Three states beside Virginia adopted the appellation commonwealth: Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania.” 7 Where can I find statistics about the population of Virginia cities and counties and other types of statistics – schools (SOLs), taxes, etc.? For population, business and geography statistics for the Virginia and its localities go to U.S.

Census Bureau Virginia QuickFacts, Statistics about Education, for example number of students, student /teacher ratio, or SOL scores, can be found at the Virginia Department of Education Data and Publications Web page, Check Virginia Statistics on the Internet for a list of statistics produced by Virginia State Agencies.

Why is Ireland not in the Commonwealth?

Republics – On 18 April 1949, Ireland formally became a republic in accordance with the Irish Republic of Ireland Act 1948 ; in doing so, it also formally left the Commonwealth. While Ireland had not actively participated in the Commonwealth since the early 1930s, other dominions wished to become republics without losing Commonwealth ties.

The issue came to a head in April 1949 at a Commonwealth prime ministers’ meeting in London, Under the London Declaration, India agreed that, when it became a republic in January 1950, it would remain in the Commonwealth and accept the British Sovereign as a “symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth”.

Upon hearing this, King George VI told the Indian politician Krishna Menon : “So, I’ve become ‘as such'”. Some other Commonwealth countries that have since become republics have chosen to leave, while others, such as Guyana, Mauritius and Dominica, have remained members.

  1. The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth.
  2. Following India’s precedent, other nations became republics, or constitutional monarchies with their own monarchs.
  3. While some countries retained the same monarch as the United Kingdom, their monarchies developed differently and soon became essentially independent of the British monarchy.

The monarch is regarded as a separate legal personality in each realm, even though the same person is monarch of each realm.

Why is the US not part of the Commonwealth?

While the USA was a part of British empire but it did not leave like other countries like Canada, new Zealand. USA Gaines independence way earlier than those countries, so when commonwealth was formed, USA had moved far away from culture, political influence of Britain, so they did not join.

Why China is not a Commonwealth country?

Because they are NOT part of the commonwealth of nations. These are made up of countries that were colonised by the British and recognised the British monarchy as their head of state.