Asked By: Walter Alexander Date: created: Jun 22 2023

Who said electrons orbit the nucleus at specific distances

Answered By: Hunter Coleman Date: created: Jun 24 2023

Atoms consist of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells. The numbers of subatomic particles in an atom can be calculated from its atomic number and mass number.

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Niels Bohr adapted Ernest Rutherford’s nuclear model. Bohr did calculations that led him to suggest that electrons orbit the nucleus in shells. The shells are at certain distances from the nucleus. The calculations agreed with observations from experiments. The nuclear model of the atom, showing electrons in shells Further experiments led to the idea that the nucleus contained small particles, called protons, Each proton has a small amount of positive charge. In 1932 James Chadwick found evidence for the existence of particles in the nucleus with mass but no charge.

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Asked By: Hayden Howard Date: created: Apr 22 2023

Who proposed electrons orbit the nucleus

Answered By: Julian Powell Date: created: Apr 22 2023

In atomic physics, the Bohr model or Rutherford–Bohr model of the atom, presented by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, consists of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons.

Did Rutherford said electrons revolve around the nucleus?

Rutherford’s atomic model shows the existence of nucleus in the atom, nature of charge on the nucleus and the magnitude of charge on the nucleus. He said that electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular paths called orbits.

Do electrons orbit the nucleus at specific distances?

Unlike planets orbiting the Sun, electrons cannot be at any arbitrary distance from the nucleus; they can exist only in certain specific locations called allowed orbits. This property, first explained by Danish physicist Niels Bohr in 1913, is another result of quantum mechanics—specifically, the requirement that the angular momentum of an electron in orbit, like everything else in the quantum world, come in discrete bundles called quanta,

  1. In the Bohr atom electrons can be found only in allowed orbits, and these allowed orbits are at different energies.
  2. The orbits are analogous to a set of stairs in which the gravitational potential energy is different for each step and in which a ball can be found on any step but never in between.
  3. The laws of quantum mechanics describe the process by which electrons can move from one allowed orbit, or energy level, to another.

As with many processes in the quantum world, this process is impossible to visualize. An electron disappears from the orbit in which it is located and reappears in its new location without ever appearing any place in between. This process is called a quantum leap or quantum jump, and it has no analog in the macroscopic world.

  1. Because different orbits have different energies, whenever a quantum leap occurs, the energy possessed by the electron will be different after the jump.
  2. For example, if an electron jumps from a higher to a lower energy level, the lost energy will have to go somewhere and in fact will be emitted by the atom in a bundle of electromagnetic radiation,

This bundle is known as a photon, and this emission of photons with a change of energy levels is the process by which atoms emit light. See also laser, Britannica Quiz Facts You Should Know: The Periodic Table Quiz In the same way, if energy is added to an atom, an electron can use that energy to make a quantum leap from a lower to a higher orbit. This energy can be supplied in many ways. One common way is for the atom to absorb a photon of just the right frequency,

For example, when white light is shone on an atom, it selectively absorbs those frequencies corresponding to the energy differences between allowed orbits. Each element has a unique set of energy levels, and so the frequencies at which it absorbs and emits light act as a kind of fingerprint, identifying the particular element.

This property of atoms has given rise to spectroscopy, a science devoted to identifying atoms and molecules by the kind of radiation they emit or absorb. This picture of the atom, with electrons moving up and down between allowed orbits, accompanied by the absorption or emission of energy, contains the essential features of the Bohr atomic model, for which Bohr received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.

  • His basic model does not work well in explaining the details of the structure of atoms more complicated than hydrogen, however.
  • This requires the introduction of quantum mechanics.
  • In quantum mechanics each orbiting electron is represented by a mathematical expression known as a wave function —something like a vibrating guitar string laid out along the path of the electron’s orbit.

These waveforms are called orbitals. See also quantum mechanics: Bohr’s theory of the atom,

Did Bohr say electrons orbit the nucleus?

Bohr’s Atomic Model – Following the discoveries of hydrogen emission spectra and the photoelectric effect, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885-1962) proposed a new model of the atom in 1915. Bohr proposed that electrons do not radiate energy as they orbit the nucleus, but exist in states of constant energy that he called stationary states, Figure \(\PageIndex \): Bohr’s atomic model hydrogen emission spectra. (Credit: Zachary Wilson; Source: CK-12 Foundation; License: CC BY-NC 3.0(opens in new window) ) Bohr explained that electrons can be moved into different orbits with the addition of energy.

When the energy is removed, the electrons return back to their ground state, emitting a corresponding amount of energy—a quantum of light, or photon. This was the basis for what later became known as quantum theory, This is a theory based on the principle that matter and energy have the properties of both particles and waves.

It accounts for a wide range of physical phenomena, including the existence of discrete packets of energy and matter, the uncertainty principle, and the exclusion principle. According to the Bohr model, often referred to as a planetary model, the electrons encircle the nucleus of the atom in specific allowable paths called orbits.

  1. When the electron is in one of these orbits, its energy is fixed.
  2. The ground state of the hydrogen atom, where its energy is lowest, is when the electron is in the orbit that is closest to the nucleus.
  3. The orbits that are further from the nucleus are all of successively greater energy.
  4. The electron is not allowed to occupy any of the spaces in between the orbits.

An everyday analogy to the Bohr model is the rungs of a ladder. As you move up or down a ladder, you can only occupy specific rungs and cannot be in the spaces in between rungs. Moving up the ladder increases your potential energy, while moving down the ladder decreases your energy.

Asked By: Alan Wood Date: created: Mar 31 2024

What did JJ Thomson discover

Answered By: Landon Mitchell Date: created: Apr 01 2024

In 1897 Thomson discovered the electron and then went on to propose a model for the structure of the atom. His work also led to the invention of the mass spectrograph.

Asked By: Bryan Harris Date: created: Mar 12 2024

What did Niels Bohr say orbited the nucleus

Answered By: Steven Howard Date: created: Mar 12 2024

Work – The discovery of the electron and radioactivity in the late 19th century led to different models being proposed for the atom’s structure. In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed a theory for the hydrogen atom, based on quantum theory that some physical quantities only take discrete values.

  1. Electrons move around a nucleus, but only in prescribed orbits, and If electrons jump to a lower-energy orbit, the difference is sent out as radiation.
  2. Bohr’s model explained why atoms only emit light of fixed wavelengths, and later incorporated the theories on light quanta.
  3. Back to top Back To Top Takes users back to the top of the page This year’s Nobel Prize announcements will take place 2–9 October.

All announcements will be streamed live here on nobelprize.org. See the full schedule Select the category or categories you would like to filter by Select the category or categories you would like to filter by Physics Chemistry Medicine Literature Peace Economic Sciences Decrease the year by one Choose a year you would like to search in Increase the year by one

Asked By: Noah Rivera Date: created: Feb 15 2024

What did Rutherford say about electrons

Answered By: Dennis Jackson Date: created: Feb 18 2024

Rutherford’s Alpha Scattering Experiment – Rutherford conducted an experiment by bombarding a thin sheet of gold with α-particles and then studied the trajectory of these particles after their interaction with the gold foil. Rutherford, in his experiment, directed high energy streams of α-particles from a radioactive source at a thin sheet (100 nm thickness) of gold. In order to study the deflection caused to the α-particles, he placed a fluorescent zinc sulphide screen around the thin gold foil. Rutherford made certain observations that contradicted, The observations made by Rutherford led him to conclude that:

  1. A major fraction of the α-particles bombarded towards the gold sheet passed through the sheet without any deflection, and hence most of the space in an atom is empty,
  2. Some of the α-particles were deflected by the gold sheet by very small angles, and hence the positive charge in an atom is not uniformly distributed, The positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a very small volume,
  3. Very few of the α-particles were deflected back, that is only a few α-particles had nearly 180 o angle of deflection. So the volume occupied by the positively charged particles in an atom is very small as compared to the total volume of an atom,
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Based on the above observations and conclusions, Rutherford proposed the atomic structure of elements. According to the Rutherford atomic model:

  1. The positive charge and most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in an extremely small volume. He called this region of the atom as a nucleus.
  2. Rutherford’s model proposed that the negatively charged electrons surround the nucleus of an atom. He also claimed that the electrons surrounding the nucleus revolve around it with very high speed in circular paths. He named these circular paths as orbits.
  3. Electrons being negatively charged and nucleus being a densely concentrated mass of positively charged particles are held together by a strong electrostatic force of attraction.

Although the Rutherford atomic model was based on experimental observations, it failed to explain certain things.

Rutherford proposed that the electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed paths called orbits. According to Maxwell, accelerated charged particles emit electromagnetic radiations and hence an electron revolving around the nucleus should emit electromagnetic radiation. This radiation would carry energy from the motion of the electron which would come at the cost of shrinking of orbits. Ultimately the electrons would collapse in the nucleus. Calculations have shown that as per the Rutherford model, an electron would collapse into the nucleus in less than 10 -8 seconds. So the Rutherford model was not in accordance with Maxwell’s theory and could not explain the stability of an atom,

One of the drawbacks of the Rutherford model was also that he did not say anything about the arrangement of electrons in an atom which made his theory incomplete.

Although the early atomic models were inaccurate and failed to explain certain experimental results, they formed the base for future developments in the world of quantum mechanics,

Register with BYJU’S to learn more topics of chemistry such as Hybridization, Atomic Structure models and more. Rutherford was the first to determine the presence of a nucleus in an atom. He bombarded α-particles on a gold sheet, which made him encounter the presence of positively charged specie inside the atom. Rutherford proposed the atomic structure of elements.

He explained that a positively charged particle is present inside the atom, and most of the mass of an atom is concentrated over there. He also stated that negatively charged particles rotate around the nucleus, and there is an electrostatic force of attraction between them. Rutherford failed to explain the arrangement of electrons in an atom.

Like Maxwell, he was unable to explain the stability of the atom. Rutherford performed an alpha scattering experiment. He bombarded α-particles on a gold sheet and then studied the trajectory of these α-particles. Rutherford observed that a microscopic positively charged particle is present inside the atom, and most of the mass of an atom is concentrated over there. Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin! Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz Visit BYJU’S for all Chemistry related queries and study materials

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View Quiz Answers and Analysis : Rutherford Atomic Model Observations and Limitations In Detail

What did Rutherford say about the nucleus?

The atom, as described by Ernest Rutherford, has a tiny, massive core called the nucleus. The nucleus has a positive charge. Electrons are particles with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus.

What was Erwin Schrodinger atomic theory?

Summary –

Louis de Broglie proposed that all particles could be treated as matter waves with a wavelength lambda given by the following equation:

lambda, equals, start fraction, h, divided by, m, v, end fraction

Erwin Schrödinger proposed the quantum mechanical model of the atom, which treats electrons as matter waves. Schrödinger’s equation, H, with, hat, on top, \psi, equals, E, \psi, can be solved to yield a series of wave function \psi, each of which is associated with an electron binding energy, E, The square of the wave function, \psi, squared, represents the probability of finding an electron in a given region within the atom. An atomic orbital is defined as the region within an atom that encloses where the electron is likely to be 90% of the time. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that we can’t know both the energy and position of an electron. Therefore, as we learn more about the electron’s position, we know less about its energy, and vice versa. Electrons have an intrinsic property called spin, and an electron can have one of two possible spin values: spin-up or spin-down. Any two electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spins.

Asked By: Richard Perez Date: created: Aug 22 2023

Do electrons orbit at different distances

Answered By: Patrick Rodriguez Date: created: Aug 24 2023

Electrons occupy positions in their orbits that are fixed distances from the nucleus. These electrons, as the question suggests, can also move from one fixed distance to another. For an electron to be promoted to a position farther from the nucleus, energy may be absorbed.

What did Niels Bohr discover?

Niels Bohr | Biography, Education, Accomplishments, & Facts Niels Bohr proposed a of the in which the was able to occupy only certain orbits around the nucleus. This atomic model was the first to use theory, in that the electrons were limited to specific orbits around the nucleus.

Bohr used his model to explain the spectral lines of, Niels Bohr the with that could only have specific stable orbits. This model of the atom was the first to incorporate theory. That electrons could only occur in specific orbits explained why elements such as emitted and absorbed light at specific wavelengths.

Niels Bohr, in full Niels Henrik David Bohr, (born October 7, 1885,, Denmark—died November 18, 1962, Copenhagen), Danish physicist who is generally regarded as one of the foremost physicists of the 20th century. He was the first to apply the concept, which restricts the energy of a system to certain discrete values, to the problem of and molecular structure.

  1. For that work he received the for Physics in 1922.
  2. His manifold roles in the origins and development of physics may be his most-important contribution, but through his long career his involvements were substantially broader, both inside and outside the world of,
  3. Bohr was the second of three children born into an upper middle-class Copenhagen family.

His mother, Ellen (née Adler), was the daughter of a prominent Jewish banker. His father, Christian, became a professor of at the University of Copenhagen and was nominated twice for the Nobel Prize. Enrolling at the University of Copenhagen in 1903, Bohr was never in doubt that he would study physics.

Research and teaching in that field took place in cramped quarters at the Polytechnic Institute, leased to the University for the purpose. Bohr obtained his doctorate in 1911 with a dissertation on the theory of metals. On August 1, 1912, Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund, and the marriage proved a particularly happy one.

Throughout his life, Margrethe was his most-trusted adviser. They had six sons, the fourth of whom,, shared a third of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physics in recognition of the of the atomic nucleus proposed in the early 1950s. Bohr’s first contribution to the emerging new idea of quantum physics started in 1912 during what today would be called postdoctoral research in England with at the,

Only the year before, Rutherford and his collaborators had established experimentally that the consists of a heavy positively charged nucleus with substantially lighter negatively charged circling around it at considerable distance. According to classical physics, such a system would be unstable, and Bohr felt compelled to postulate, in a trilogy of articles published in The Philosophical Magazine in 1913, that electrons could only occupy particular orbits determined by the quantum of action and that from an atom occurred only when an electron jumped to a lower-energy,

Although radical and unacceptable to most physicists at the time, the was able to account for an ever-increasing number of experimental data, famously starting with the emitted by, In the spring of 1916, Bohr was offered a new professorship at the University of Copenhagen; dedicated to theoretical physics, it was the second professorship in physics there.

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As physics was still pursued in the cramped quarters of the Polytechnic Institute, it is not surprising that already in the spring of 1917 Bohr wrote a long letter to his asking for the establishment of an Institute for Theoretical Physics. In the inauguration speech for his new institute on March 3, 1921, he stressed, first, that experiments and experimenters were indispensable at an institute for theoretical physics in order to test the statements of the theorists.

Second, he expressed his ambition to make the new institute a place where the younger generation of physicists could propose fresh ideas. Starting out with a small staff, Bohr’s institute soon accomplished those goals to the highest degree. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

  • Already in his 1913 trilogy, Bohr had sought to apply his theory to the understanding of the of elements.
  • He improved upon that aspect of his work into the early 1920s, by which time he had developed an scheme building up the periodic table by adding electrons one after another to the atom according to his,

When Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in 1922, the Hungarian physical chemist, together with the physicist Dirk Coster from Holland, were working at Bohr’s institute to establish experimentally that the as-yet-undiscovered atomic element 72 would behave as predicted by Bohr’s theory.

Did Einstein agree with Bohr?

Niels Bohr (left) with Albert Einstein (right) at Paul Ehrenfest ‘s home in Leiden (December 1925) The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science, insofar as the disagreements—and the outcome of Bohr’s version of quantum mechanics becoming the prevalent view—form the root of the modern understanding of physics.

  1. Most of Bohr’s version of the events held in Solvay in 1927 and other places was first written by Bohr decades later in an article titled, “Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics”.
  2. Based on the article, the philosophical issue of the debate was whether Bohr’s Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics, which centered on his belief of complementarity, was valid in explaining nature.

Despite their differences of opinion and the succeeding discoveries that helped solidify quantum mechanics, Bohr and Einstein maintained a mutual admiration that was to last the rest of their lives. Although Bohr and Einstein disagreed, they were great friends all their lives and enjoyed using each other as a foil.

What did Ernest Rutherford discover?

A Series of Discoveries – A consummate experimentalist, Rutherford was responsible for a remarkable series of discoveries in the fields of radioactivity and nuclear physics. He discovered alpha and beta rays, set forth the laws of radioactive decay, and identified alpha particles as helium nuclei. Rutherford on the New Zealand 100-dollar banknote.

Is the Bohr model correct?

The Bohr Model

The BohrModel

The most important properties of atomic and molecular structure may be exemplified using a simplified picture of an atom that is called the Bohr Model, This model was proposed by Niels Bohr in 1915; it is not completely correct, but it has many features that are approximately correct and it is sufficient for much of our discussion.

What is J. J. Thomson most famous for?

J oseph John Thomson was born in Cheetham Hill, a suburb of Manchester on December 18, 1856. He enrolled at Owens College, Manchester, in 1870, and in 1876 entered Trinity College, Cambridge as a minor scholar. He became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1880, when he was Second Wrangler and Second Smith’s Prizeman, and he remained a member of the College for the rest of his life, becoming Lecturer in 1883 and Master in 1918.

  1. He was Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge, where he succeeded Lord Rayleigh, from 1884 to 1918 and Honorary Professor of Physics, Cambridge and Royal Institution, London.
  2. Thomson’s early interest in atomic structure was reflected in his Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings which won him the Adams Prize in 1884.

His Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry appeared in 1886, and in 1892 he had his Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism published. This latter work covered results obtained subsequent to the appearance of James Clerk Maxwell’s famous “Treatise” and it is often referred to as “the third volume of Maxwell”.

  1. Thomson co-operated with Professor J.H.
  2. Poynting in a four-volume textbook of physics, Properties of Matter and in 1895 he produced Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, the 5th edition of which appeared in 1921.
  3. In 1896, Thomson visited America to give a course of four lectures, which summarised his current researches, at Princeton.

These lectures were subsequently published as The Discharge of Electricity through Gases (1898). On his return from America, he achieved the most brilliant work of his life – an original study of cathode rays culminating in the discovery of the electron, which was announced during the course of his evening lecture to the Royal Institution on Friday, April 30, 1897.

  • His book, Conduction of Electricity through Gases, published in 1903 was described by Lord Rayleigh as a review of “Thomson’s great days at the Cavendish Laboratory”.
  • A later edition, written in collaboration with his son, George, appeared in two volumes (1928 and 1933).
  • Thomson returned to America in 1904 to deliver six lectures on electricity and matter at Yale University.

They contained some important suggestions as to the structure of the atom. He discovered a method for separating different kinds of atoms and molecules by the use of positive rays, an idea developed by Aston, Dempster and others towards the discovery of many isotopes.

  • In addition to those just mentioned, he wrote the books, The Structure of Light (1907), The Corpuscular Theory of Matter (1907), Rays of Positive Electricity (1913), The Electron in Chemistry (1923) and his autobiography, Recollections and Reflections (1936), among many other publications.
  • Thomson, a recipient of the Order of Merit, was knighted in 1908.

He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1884 and was President during 1916-1920; he received the Royal and Hughes Medals in 1894 and 1902, and the Copley Medal in 1914. He was awarded the Hodgkins Medal (Smithsonian Institute, Washington) in 1902; the Franklin Medal and Scott Medal (Philadelphia), 1923; the Mascart Medal (Paris), 1927; the Dalton Medal (Manchester), 1931; and the Faraday Medal (Institute of Civil Engineers) in 1938.

He was President of the British Association in 1909 (and of Section A in 1896 and 1931) and he held honorary doctorate degrees from the Universities of Oxford, Dublin, London, Victoria, Columbia, Cambridge, Durham, Birmingham, Göttingen, Leeds, Oslo, Sorbonne, Edinburgh, Reading, Princeton, Glasgow, Johns Hopkins, Aberdeen, Athens, Cracow and Philadelphia.

In 1890, he married Rose Elisabeth, daughter of Sir George E. Paget, K.C.B. They had one son, now Sir George Paget Thomson, Emeritus Professor of Physics at London University, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937, and one daughter. This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel,

  1. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures,
  2. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.
  3. For more updated biographical information, see: Thomson, Joseph John, Recollections and Reflections,G.
  4. Bell and Sons: London, 1936.J.J.
  5. Thomson died on August 30, 1940.
  6. Back to top Back To Top Takes users back to the top of the page This year’s Nobel Prize announcements will take place 2–9 October.

All announcements will be streamed live here on nobelprize.org. See the full schedule Select the category or categories you would like to filter by Select the category or categories you would like to filter by Physics Chemistry Medicine Literature Peace Economic Sciences Decrease the year by one Choose a year you would like to search in Increase the year by one

Asked By: Isaiah Richardson Date: created: Jan 05 2024

What is Joseph John Thomson best known for

Answered By: Donald Harris Date: created: Jan 08 2024

Joseph John Thomson – Magnet Academy Joseph John Thomson, better known as J.J. Thomson, was a British physicist who first theorized and offered experimental evidence that the atom is a divisible entity rather than the basic unit of matter, as was widely believed at the time.

  1. A series of experiments with cathode rays he carried out near the end of the 19th century led to his discovery of the electron, a negatively charged atomic particle with very little mass.
  2. Thomson received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906 for his work exploring the electrical conductivity of various gases.

The son of a bookseller, Thomson was born on December 18, 1856, in Cheetham Hill, located just north of Manchester, England. He entered Owens College when he was 14 years old, where he became interested in experimental physics, though he had initially intended to pursue a career in engineering.

  • Thomson’s father died only a few years into his college studies, making it financially difficult for Thomson to remain in school.
  • However, through the efforts of his family and scholarships he continued at Owens College until 1876.
  • He then transferred to Trinity College, Cambridge, on a mathematics scholarship.
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He remained associated with Cambridge University in varying capacities the rest of his life. In 1880, Thomson received a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and became second wrangler, a title bestowed on the second highest-scoring individual on the Cambridge mathematics exams.

  1. Following graduation, Thomson became a Fellow at Trinity College and began work at the Cavendish Laboratory, part of the Cambridge Physics Department.
  2. In 1883, he became a lecturer at Cambridge and the following year was appointed Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, becoming the successor to Lord Rayleigh.

Also in 1884, the Royal Society of London elected Thomson as a Fellow. The receipt of such considerable honors by so young a scientist was highly unusual, but was largely the result of Thomson’s significant early work expanding James Clerk Maxwell’s theories of electromagnetism.

  1. Coverage of these efforts, which continued over many years, appeared in Thomson’s 1892 treatise Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism,
  2. In the early 1890s, much of Thomson’s research focused on electrical conduction in gases.
  3. During a visit to the United States in 1896, he gave a series of lectures discussing his findings.

In 1897, the lectures were published as Discharge of Electricity through Gases, That same year, when Thomson returned to Cambridge, he made his most significant scientific discovery, that of the electron (which he initially referred to as the corpuscle ).

  • On April 30, 1897, Thomson made his discovery public while giving a lecture to the Royal Institution.
  • The evidence he produced in support of his theoretical claims was culled from a series of innovative experiments with cathode ray tubes.
  • In one experiment, Thomson attempted to use magnetism to see if negative charge could be segregated from cathode rays, in another he tried to deflect the rays with an electric field, and in a third he assessed the charge-to-mass ratio of the rays.

These and additional studies carried out by Thomson and others quickly led to widespread acceptance of Thomson’s discovery. Once the existence of the electron was accepted, the next step was to consider how the particles were incorporated into the atom.

  1. Thomson was initially a strong proponent of what is commonly called the plum-pudding atomic model or the Thomson atomic model, although many other representations of the atom were suggested by his contemporaries.
  2. According to Thomson’s view, each atom was a positively charged sphere with electrons scattered throughout (like bits of fruit in a plum pudding).

He maintained this notion until experimental research and theoretical work indicated that the atomic model described in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford, a former student of Thomson, was much more likely. The Rutherford atomic model described the structure of the atom as a positively charged nucleus around which negatively charged electrons circulated.

  • Research since that time has resulted in the abandonment of the Rutherford model in favor of other atomic models.
  • Throughout most of his life, Thomson was a leading scientific figure in Britain.
  • He held a variety of administrative positions and received many prestigious awards in addition to the Nobel Prize.

Thomson served as president of the Royal Society from 1915 to 1920, and was awarded several medals by the organization, including the Royal Medal (1894), the Hughes Medal (1902) and their highest honor, the Copley Medal (1914). In 1908, the royal family honored Thomson with knighthood, and the following year he was elected president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • His contributions were further recognized with the Order of Merit (1912), election as a master of Trinity College (1918) and honorary degrees from universities around the globe.
  • Thomson married in 1890.
  • His wife was Rose Elisabeth Paget, daughter of Sir George E.
  • Paget, Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge.

The couple had two children. Their son, George Paget Thomson, followed in his father’s footsteps, winning the Nobel Prize in Physics for work involving the electron. : Joseph John Thomson – Magnet Academy

What did Robert Millikan discover about the electron?

His earliest major success was the accurate determination of the charge carried by an electron, using the elegant ‘falling-drop method’; he also proved that this quantity was a constant for all electrons (1910), thus demonstrating the atomic structure of electricity.

Do electrons orbit in specific paths?

Physics Questions People Ask Fermilab – Movement of the Electron Around the Nucleus Question: It is very enlightening to read your research and very delightfull to explore our world. Why does the electron have to move around the Nucleus? Why does it not loose energy moving around it? If you say that they move in fixed energy orbits why the electron still have to rotate? Lastly what decides the energy orbits? Thanks so much.

-Arvind Answer: Dear Arvind, You raise some really good questions: Why does the electron have to move around the Nucleus? Why does it not lose energy moving around it? The answer is: although it is convenient to think of the electron moving around the nucleus along circular paths, the correct description is a quantum mechanical one.

This is tough to visualize, and hence people have stuck to the flawed picture of electrons moving along orbits. Incidentally, the orbit picture (Bohr’s model) gives the right answers for many physical properties, including the energy needed for the electron to jump from one energy (orbit) level to another one.

This switch in energy (orbit) levels occurs when the electron gains or loses energy through the absorption or emission of a photon (which is a light particle with a certain amount of energy, also called a quantum of energy). In the more accurate quantum picture, the motion of the electron is described by probability functions and there is no fixed orbit.

Different paths have different probabilities, and one can calculate average energy levels. These energy levels turn out to have exactly the same values as the energy levels calculated using the orbital (Bohr) model. However, the probability picture avoids the problem of an orbiting object losing energy through radiation.

How do electrons orbit the nucleus?

Adding up the energies – But there’s a completely different way to examine the situation that doesn’t rely on quantum mechanics at all: Just look at all the energies involved. An electron orbiting a nucleus is electrically attracted to the nucleus; it’s always being pulled closer.

But the electron also has kinetic energy, which works to send the electron flying away. For a stable atom, these two are in balance. In fact, the total energy of an electron in orbit, which is a combination of its kinetic and potential energies, is negative. That means you have to add energy to the atom if you want to remove the electron.

It’s the same situation with the planets in orbit around the sun: To remove a planet from the solar system, you’d have to add energy to the system. One way to view this situation is to imagine an electron “falling” toward a nucleus, attracted by its opposite electric charge.

  • But because of the rules of quantum mechanics, it can’t ever reach the nucleus.
  • So it gets stuck, forever orbiting.
  • But this scenario is allowed by physics, because the total energy of the system is negative, meaning it’s stable and bound together, forming a long-lasting atom.
  • Originally published on Live Science on Jan.21, 2011 and rewritten on June 22, 2022.

Stay up to date on the latest science news by signing up for our Essentials newsletter. Paul M. Sutter is a research professor in astrophysics at SUNY Stony Brook University and the Flatiron Institute in New York City. He regularly appears on TV and podcasts, including “Ask a Spaceman.” He is the author of two books, “Your Place in the Universe” and “How to Die in Space,” and is a regular contributor to Space.com, Live Science, and more.

Asked By: Hugh Griffin Date: created: Jan 30 2023

How does the distance at which an electron orbits the nucleus change

Answered By: George Flores Date: created: Jan 30 2023

The electron arrangements may change with the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (move further from the nucleus; a higher energy level) of by the emission of electromagnetic radiation (move closer to the nucleus; a lower energy level).

What is shown to orbit the nucleus at distances?

Bohr and energy levels – Even though Rutherford had proven the existence of the nucleus, scientists were unsure how electrons fitted into this new model. In 1913, Niels Bohr revised Rutherford’s model by suggesting that the electrons orbited the nucleus in different energy levels or at specific distances from the nucleus.

  1. By doing this, he was able to explain that since particular chemicals burn with certain-coloured flames, the pattern of energy released by electrons in the chemical reaction must be the same for every single atom of that element.
  2. Therefore, electrons cannot be arranged at random, but they must have fixed levels of energy within each type of atom.

Bohr’s ‘solar system’ model of the atom is the way that most people think about atoms today. When atoms absorb energy, the electrons at a particular level are pushed up to higher levels (at bigger distances from the nucleus). In time, they jump back down to a lower level releasing light of definite frequencies.