- 1 When did the first pope start
- 2 Which pope got assassinated
- 3 Who started Catholicism
- 4 Which pope had a son with his daughter
- 5 Do popes get paid
- 6 What is the salary of the pope
- 7 Why was the first pope crucified
- 8 Who did the pope apologize
- 9 Why didn t popes leave the Vatican for more than 50 years after 1870
- 10 Who rejected the pope
- 11 Was Pope Francis the first pope
- 12 Who was the pope before
When did the first pope start
|Bishop of Rome Pontifex maximus Pope|
|First holder||Saint Peter|
Why is Peter considered the first pope?
Saint Peter the Apostle | History, Facts, & Feast Day In Christian tradition, St. Peter was one of the 12 of, tradition holds that Jesus established St. Peter as the first (Matthew 16:18). Jesus also gave him “the keys of the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 16:19), which is why he is often depicted at the gates of in art and popular culture.
- After Jesus’ death, he served as the head of the Apostles and was the first to perform a miracle after (Acts 3:1–11).
- The two in the Bible are attributed to his authorship, though some scholars dispute this. St.
- Peter is believed to have died as a for his faith.
- Although his death is not described in, numerous writers of the time (or shortly thereafter) described his death as having occurred in Rome during the reign of the emperor in 64 CE.
According to tradition, St. Peter was crucified upside down because he felt unworthy to die in the same manner as, As the traditional first of the, St. Peter has a long list of places, occupations, and causes under his patronage. He is the patron saint of popes and of and of many cities that bear his name, such as and,
As a former fisherman, he is the patron saint of netmakers, shipbuilders, and fishermen, and, because he holds the “keys of heaven,” he is also the patron saint of locksmiths. Possibly because he is said to have walked on water with Jesus, he is the patron saint of cobblers and of those with foot problems.
St. Peter the Apostle, original name Simeon or Simon, (died 64 ce, ), of, recognized in the as the leader of the 12 and by the as the first of its unbroken succession of, Peter, a Jewish fisherman, was called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry.
He received from Jesus the name Cephas (from Aramaic Kepa ; hence Peter, from Petros, a Greek translation of Kepa). The sources of information concerning the life of Peter are limited to the : the four,, the letters of Paul, and the two letters that bear the name of Peter. He probably was known originally by the Hebrew name Simeon or the Greek form of that name, Simon.
The former appears only twice in the New Testament, the latter 49 times. At solemn moments ( 21:15), he was called “Simon, son of John.” The Gospel According to John prefers Simon (17 times) or the, rarely found elsewhere, of Simon Peter. Though Paul has a distinct preference (8 times out of 10) for the Greek transliteration Kēphas (Latinized as Cephas) of the Aramaic name or title Kepa, meaning “Rock,” the Gospels and Acts use the Greek translation Petros approximately 150 times.
- From the ( 8:14) and Paul ( 9:5), there is indirect evidence that Peter was the son of John and was married.
- His family originally came from Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), but during the period of Jesus’ ministry Peter lived in, at the northwest end of the, where he and his brother were in partnership as fishermen with and, the sons of Zebedee ( 5:10).
Much can be learned about Peter from the New Testament—either explicitly from the statements made by and about Peter or indirectly from his actions and reactions as revealed in a number of episodes in which he figures prominently. He was at times and unsure, as in his relations with the of when he at first ate with the Gentiles and later refused to do so ( 2:11–14).
- He could also be resolute (Acts of the Apostles 4:10; 5:1–10).
- Occasionally he is depicted as rash and hasty (Luke 22:33, etc.) or irritable and capable of great anger (John 18:10).
- Often he is pictured as gentle but firm and, as in his professions of love to Jesus, capable of great loyalty and love (John 21:15–17).
The New Testament reports that Peter was unlearned in the sense that he was untrained in the (Acts 4:13), and it is doubtful that he knew, He apparently learned slowly and erred time and time again, but later, when with responsibility, he demonstrated that he was mature and capable.
The Gospels agree that Peter was called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry, but when and where the event took place is recorded differently in the several Gospels. Luke (5:1–11) scarcely mentions James and John and omits Andrew while emphasizing the call of Peter. Matthew (4:18–22) and Mark ( 1:16–20) note the call of the four men and—with Luke—agree that the event took place at the Sea of,
The Gospel According to John places the call in (1:28) and states that Andrew—who had been a follower of (1:35) and had heard John indicate that Jesus was the Lamb of God—left John and introduced Peter to “the Messiah,” who at that time gave him the name (or title) Cephas (i.e., Peter, or Rock).
- The (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are probably correct in recording that the call to Peter was extended in when Jesus first began his work in that area.
- The Gospel According to John is here, as elsewhere, perhaps more theologically than historically motivated; the author of John wishes to stress that Peter recognized Jesus’ messiahship from the beginning and that Jesus had seen Simon as the “rock” from their first meeting.
Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Synoptic Gospels largely agree in the amount of emphasis each gives to the leadership of Peter among the, but there are differences also. For example, in one case Matthew and Luke note that Peter was the speaker in questioning Jesus about a parable, but Mark attributes these words to the group of disciples (Matthew 15:15; Luke 8:45; and Mark 7:17).
With differing degrees of emphasis, the Synoptic Gospels agree that Peter served as spokesman, the outstanding member of the group, and enjoyed a certain over the other disciples. Whenever the disciples are listed, Peter is invariably mentioned first (Matthew 10:2–4; Mark 3:16–19; Luke 6:14–16; Acts 1:13; compare only Galatians 2:9).
Although it is not certain whether or not this priority is primarily due to reading back into the narrative Peter’s importance in the apostolic church, his forceful personality was surely a factor. Those not belonging to the immediate followers of Jesus also recognized the authority of Peter, such as when the collectors of the temple tax approached him for information (Matthew 17:24).
Again, with quickness he sought a clarification from Jesus on behalf of the disciples concerning the meaning of a parable (Matthew 15:15) or of a saying (Matthew 18:21). As both an individual and a representative of the Twelve Apostles, he made a plea for personal preference in the kingdom of as a reward for faithful service (Matthew 19:27, 28).
On several occasions, Peter alone is mentioned by name and others are indicated as merely accompanying him (Mark 1:36; Luke 8:45). Even when the three disciples closest to Jesus (the “pillars”—Peter, James, and John) figure in a particular incident, it is frequently Peter alone who is named.
- When the three are named, Peter’s name invariably appears first (as in Matthew 17:1, 26:37).
- It was his home in Capernaum that Jesus visited when he cured Peter’s mother-in-law (Matthew 8:14), and it was Peter’s boat that Jesus used when he instructed the crowd (Luke 5:3).
- It was Peter who possessed remarkable insight and displayed his depth of faith in the confession of Christ as the Son of God (Matthew 16:15–18; Mark 8:29; Luke 9:20), and it was Peter who rebuked, and in turn was rebuked by, Jesus when the Master prophesied that he would suffer and die (Mark 8:32, 33).
It was also Peter who the momentary weakness of even the strongest when he denied his Lord (Matthew 26:69–75; Mark 14:66–72; Luke 22:54–61). Later, however, with greater maturity, Peter discovered strength and, as he was charged by Jesus (Luke 22:31, 32), effected the strengthening of others.
Finally, Peter, who survived his denial, is permitted to be the first of the Apostles to see Jesus after the (Luke 24:34). In the prominence of Peter is challenged in the person of, the “Beloved Disciple.” Though Peter receives mention in John 37 times (out of a total of 109 times in the four Gospels), one-third of the references are found in the (chapter 21), and he appears in only nine incidents.
The Gospel According to John attempts to show the close relationship between John and Jesus while still reserving to Peter the role of representative and spokesman. The fact that Peter is emphasized in John and charged by Jesus to “tend my sheep” and “feed my lambs” (John 21:15, 16) at the same time that the role of the disciples as a whole is being deemphasized attests to the of Peter in the apostolic church.
Which pope got assassinated
Conspiracy theories – To this day mystery surrounds the motives of Ağca’s attempt on the pope’s life. Conspiracy theories abound. Some suggest the involvement of the KGB due to Wojtyla’s fierce opposition to communism. Now aged 65 and living in Istanbul, Ağca told Italian news agency ANSA two years ago that: “Certainly full light has not been shed on the attack on Pope John Paul II,” adding that “many people’s memories are fading in a world full of events.” Speaking in 2021 on the 40th anniversary of the attempted assassination, Pope Francis said of his predecessor: “He was certain that he owed his life to Our Lady of Fatima,” noting that “that this makes us aware that our lives and the history of the world are in God’s hands.”
Who was the first pope to quit?
VATICAN CITY — Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, the shy German theologian who tried to reawaken Christianity in a secularized Europe but will forever be remembered as the first pontiff in 600 years to resign from the job, died Saturday. He was 95.
Who was the first black pope?
” It is with sadness that the Society of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart (The Josephites) has received the news of the death of Pope Benedict XVI. We join the rest of the Catholic world in commending his soul to God, who he served so well as the head of the universal church.
May he rest in peace.” — Bishop John Ricard, SSJ, the first Black bishop for the Archdiocese of Baltimore and the current superior general of the Josephites, in a statement on January 2, 2023. With the recent death and burial of the retired Pope Benedict XVI, some little-known history of African occupants of the papacy comes to mind.
The Church’s records tell us there were potentially three Black popes in Catholic history: Pope Victor I, who headed the church from 189-199, Pope Miltiades (311-314), and Pope Gelasius I, who was pope from 492-496. Incidentally, all three popes have been declared saints—the seeming prohibition based on race apparently existing only for African Americans.
Moreover, the reigns of the three African pontiffs were more brief than those of contemporary popes, perhaps because life expectancy was shorter then. The three popes were all profound individuals. Pope Victor, for example, declared that Easter must be celebrated only on a Sunday and dictated that anyone who disagreed or disobeyed would be accountable to him and excommunicated.
With no fixed date for Easter especially in the East—it was celebrated in those days on the fourteenth day after the full moon, but on different days in various countries—Pope Victor asserted his papal authority, decisively ending the confusion and controversy over when to celebrate Easter.
It is also said to be Victor who began the transition of the Western Church’s Mass to the Latin language, as opposed to the vernacular of the time (which was Greek). His feast day is celebrated by Catholics each year on July 28. Pope Miltiades, also called Melchiades the African, also has a reputation in history as an excellent leader and pontiff.
Virtually all Christians were being persecuted when he was first elected, but he was the pope to help implement the edict of the Roman Emperor Galerius, who ruled from 305-311 and decreed toleration—ending the persecutions and allowing Christians to believe and act publicly in their faith.
Interestingly, Miltiades was the last pontiff to be buried in a catacomb, an ancient Roman underground cemetery and hiding place where spaces were set aside for individual tombs. This pope is remembered by Catholics on December 10. The most recent African pope, Gelasius, was born in Rome but his parents were from the motherland.
He was widely known as a prolific writer and as a very strong advocate for charity and justice for the poor. He required that all bishops donate a quarter of their revenue to charity, saying, “nothing is more becoming to the priestly office than the protection of the poor and weak.” His feast is November 21, during what is now recognized as Black Catholic History Month.
- Bishop John Ricard, SSJ, a retired African-American prelate and current superior general of the Josephites, said in a recent phone interview that “more should be known about these three African popes.” “They were all consequential.
- They were very important to the life of the Church and yet more work remains to be done about getting the word out about them.” There are currently 16 active African cardinals, all of whom are able to elect a pope or be chosen as one themselves.
Pope Francis elevated two Africans as cardinals in 2022, one from Nigeria ( Peter Okpaleke ) and one from Ghana ( Richard Baawobr ) who died just months later. In recent years, there was one African cardinal whose name turned up most frequently as a possible candidate to be elected pope: Cardinal Francis Arinze of Nigeria, who for years was eligible but is no longer, now being 90 years old.
He was a principal concelebrant at Thursday’s funeral for Pope Benedict XVI, whom he once served as a Vatican prefect. Arinze and other Black papabili like him are very highly respected, but the question remains of whether they would be accepted in the United States, and in other parts of the world with a history of White Supremacy even in modern times.
As we mourn the pope emeritus, let us also say this: long live Pope Francis, and may he be followed one day by the fourth African pope—whomever that may be. Ralph E. Moore Jr. is a lifelong Black Catholic, educated by the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Jesuits.
Who started Catholicism
Who founded Roman Catholicism? As a branch of Christianity, Roman Catholicism can be traced to the life and teachings of Jesus Christ in Roman-occupied Jewish Palestine about 30 CE. According to Roman Catholic teaching, each of the sacraments was instituted by Christ himself.
Which pope had a son with his daughter
An orgy-loving Pope, his incestuous daughter, and how the Borgias – focus of a major new TV series – created the bloodiest soap opera in history
- By Updated: 09:54 BST, 11 August 2011
- Though it was a Sunday, neither religion nor piety was much in evidence in the sumptuously decorated apartments in Rome where a banquet was in full swing.
- Among the guests were 50 ‘honest whores’ who had been invited to the palace to entertain the host, the most powerful man in the city.
- Aged 70, he still had a voracious appetite for beautiful young women and liked them to dance for him, preferably naked.
Dynasty: The extraordinary Borgia family is portrayed in a new series starting this week on Sky Atlantic The order was given for all the women to disrobe. To spice things up, candelabra were placed on the floor and chestnuts scattered among them. The naked girls were then encouraged to scrabble around the floor picking up the chestnuts, to the lascivious delight of the host and his companions.
- Prizes were offered to the man who made love to the greatest number of prostitutes.
- The scene may sound familiar to those who follow the scandalous activities of Italy’s infamous septuagenarian premier, Silvio Berlusconi.
- In fact, the infamous ‘Chestnut Orgy’ took place more than 500 years ago.
- And the old man licking his lips at the antics of the call-girls was none other than the Pope himself, Alexander VI, formerly known as Rodrigo Borgia.
It is said that his daughter Lucrezia and his son Cesare were also there, enjoying the spectacle. Notorious: Lucrezia, played in The Borgias by Holliday Grainger, was suspected of incest
- Today, it is Lucrezia Borgia’s name that has survived down the centuries, thanks to her depiction in paintings and operas as a murderess who used a hollow ring to drip arsenic into her enemies’ drinks.
- But in Renaissance Italy, it was the entire Borgia family who had a reputation for murderous intrigue, ruling Rome with an iron fist and stopping at nothing to satisfy their lust for money, sex and power.
- They were even accused of incest: Lucrezia was rumoured to have slept with her father and brother.
- Now, the Borgias are the subject of a major new television series, starting on Saturday and starring Jeremy Irons and Derek Jacobi.
- The tales of the family’s crimes and depravity certainly make rich material for scriptwriters; some of their alleged antics make Berlusconi’s bunga bunga parties look as innocent as Sunday school picnics.
The Borgias were Spanish by origin and were viewed in Rome initially as foreign adventurers. The first Borgia Pope, Alexander’s uncle Alfonso, had come to Italy in the 15th century as an administrator on behalf of the Spanish King of Aragon, who had recently conquered Naples.
- He immediately set about dispensing lucrative church appointments to his relatives, including his nephew, the future Alexander VI, who was given a key Vatican post.
- A tall, heavily-built but athletic man with full lips, a hooked nose and a voracious sexual appetite (women were said to be magnetically attracted to him), the young Alexander flagrantly flouted his vows of celibacy.
- By the time he himself ascended the papal throne in 1492, he had fathered at least eight children, four of them, including Lucrezia, with his long-term mistress.
Man of God: But the Borgia Pope Alexander VI, played in the new show by Jeremy Irons, rarely behaved piously He planned to build a dynasty that would be the most powerful in Italy. But although he may have been ambitious for his family, he loved them devotedly — perhaps too devotedly in the case of Lucrezia.
The Pope was ‘a very carnal man, and very loving of his flesh and blood’, wrote one observer, knowingly. By the time Lucrezia was 13, she was a beauty with golden hair, a rather large mouth, ‘brilliantly white’ teeth, a slender neck and an ‘admirably proportioned bust’. Already, rumours were rife that she and her father were having a physical relationship.
If true, this did not prevent Alexander — played by Irons in the new series — from marrying her off to Giovanni Sforza, the 26-year-old son of an important northern Italian family, in order to strengthen the Borgias’ position. He insisted, however, that the marriage was not to be consummated for some months.
- As Sarah Bradford, biographer of Lucrezia, says, so much of what we know of the Borgias comes from their many enemies, who may have invented stories to discredit them.
- What is certain is that four years into the marriage, Alexander found a new, more politically advantageous match for Lucrezia, with the heir to the royal family of Naples.
- Giovanni was told that the marriage was being annulled on grounds of non-consummation due to his impotence.
His male pride stung, Giovanni insisted that he had carnally ‘known’ Lucrezia ‘an infinite number of times’. But when he learned the Borgias were plotting to kill him, he gave in, bitterly remarking that the marriage was only annulled so the Pope could have Lucrezia to himself. Voracious: Cesare Borgia (played by Francois Arnaud) harboured an obsessive love for his sister Lucrezia’s elder brother Cesare is thought to have had him murdered both to remove the evidence of Lucrezia’s adultery and to avenge his own sexual jealousy.
Handsome and clever, but mercurial and violently jealous, of all the Borgias he was perhaps the most ruthless and amoral. A notorious womaniser, he was also said to harbour an obsessive love for his sister which seems to have gone well beyond normal fraternal affection. But despite her pregnancy and rumours of an incestuous relationship with not only with her father but also her brother, the Borgias brazenly persisted in portraying Lucrezia as a virgin bride at her second marriage, a fallacy that, in the words of one contemporary, ‘set all of Italy laughing since it was common knowledge that she had been and was then the greatest whore there ever was in Rome’.
The marriage ceremony to the Neapolitan prince showcased the Borgias’ wealth and power. Lucrezia was draped in jewellery, her sleeves were studded with gems and her dress was made of gold brocade. Although she was a pawn in her father and brother’s power-broking, she appeared genuinely happy with her handsome 17-year-old groom, Alfonso, and the marriage was ‘carnally consummated’ without delay.
- The Borgias’ attempts to accumulate wealth now became even more brazen.
- Anyone who crossed them was liable to have his lands and property confiscated and be left to rot in prison, if they were lucky.
- One friar who criticised the Pope was hanged in chains, then burnt until his arms and legs dropped off, and finally blown up with gunpowder.
Bishops and cardinals were murdered, and their lands and palaces looted before their bodies were cold. While the Tiber ran red with the blood of the Borgias’ enemies, Lucrezia settled down to married life with Alfonso, giving birth to a son named Rodrigo.
But her happiness was about to be cut short. A major shift in political power involving the French and Spanish royal houses meant Alfonso’s family lost a great deal of their cachet very quickly. To the ruthless Borgias, he had outlived his usefulness. One evening, he was savagely attacked by a gang of men until nearby Papal guards intervened.
He was taken to the Vatican, where Lucrezia nursed him devotedly. But when Alfonso’s condition improved, a man burst in, seized two of Alfonso’s relatives at his bedside, and had them taken to prison. He was Michelotto, Cesare’s chief henchman and assassin.
Lucrezia rushed to her father to protest, leaving her weakened husband alone with Michelotto. It was a grave error. On her return, she found Alfonso dead: Michelotto had strangled him. It was well-known that Cesare had ordered the murder out of jealousy and fear that Alfonso himself was becoming too ambitious for power.
Despite his position, Cesare was extraordinarily sensitive to any perceived slight. He arrested one man for spreading scandalous stories about the Borgias. The man’s tongue was partially cut out and his hand chopped off, then hung out of the prison window as a warning. Powerful: Alexander saw little need to control his tempestuous family His father the Pope did nothing to punish his psychopathic son, explaining indulgently: ‘The Duke is a good-hearted man, but he cannot tolerate insults.’ All Rome was now in terror of the Borgias.
No one was safe, least of all those who married into the family. Despite her grief, Lucrezia readily agreed to the next match arranged by her father and brother. The Borgias wanted her to marry the heir to the Este family, who held the important dukedom of Ferrara in the north-east of Italy. Unsurprisingly, the Estes were not keen on allying themselves with the most notorious family in Italy.
Still aged just 20, Lucrezia’s reputation made her a far from desirable catch. But the Borgias were too powerful to refuse, and Lucrezia took part in the negotiations over her dowry. Astute and highly educated, she also acted as her father’s most trusted regent while he and Cesare were away from Rome.
But in 1502, she finally left Rome for Ferrara. Her distraught father watched her go, running from window to window. She also had to leave behind her two-year-old son Rodrigo from her second marriage, a too-visible reminder that she was no virgin bride — and she never saw him again before his death aged just 12.
Lucrezia’s third marriage was a success in many ways. She bore Alfonso — who shared the same name as her second husband — six children, including an heir. She gained a respectable reputation, despite continuing to take lovers, as did her husband. Her first affair (which may have been platonic) was with a poet.
Her second, with her brother-in-law Francesco, was passionately physical. She seemed not to care that Francesco was sexually voracious and had a string of mistresses, as well as a pimp to provide him with young boys. He, like her husband, soon had syphilis. Lucrezia was devastated when, a year after leaving Rome, her father died horribly.
For a week he lay racked with fever as he vomited blood. His corpse was so bloated it was scarcely recognisable as human and had to be stuffed into his coffin. It may have been malaria that killed him, but rumours abounded that he and Cesare tried to poison an enemy over dinner, only to poison themselves after the wine jugs were mixed up.
- Cesare, being young and strong, recovered — but four years later he was killed in an ambush.
- By then, the power of the Borgias had waned.
- However, Lucrezia survived, retaining her powerful position in Ferrara, where she often acted as regent for her husband, proving a compassionate and capable ruler.
- She died aged 39 of complications following the birth of a daughter.
Despite her depiction in Victorian times as a ruthless murderess, there is no evidence she was involved in murder — or that she ever used a hollow ring to dispense arsenic.
- In her biographer Sarah Bradford’s view, far from being the ultimate femme fatale, she was more schemed against than scheming.
- It is the psychopathic Cesare and the carnal Alexander whose wickedness, even if exaggerated by their enemies, has the power to shock 500 years on, making the Borgias the bloodiest soap opera in history.
- The Borgias starts on Saturday on Sky Atlantic
: An orgy-loving Pope, his incestuous daughter, and how the Borgias – focus of a major new TV series – created the bloodiest soap opera in history
Do popes get paid
No, the pope does not get paid. However, he is in charge of the Vatican budget, which has revenues around $300 million per year. This money goes to, among many other things, paying all of the Pope’s expenses: food, travel, the Papal apartments, etc.
What is the salary of the pope
How much does Pope Francis get paid by the catholic church? – We must make it clear that once he took the position as the leader of the catholic church, Pope Francis renounced to any type of luxury and wages from the church. Popes usually get paid hendsomely, the current wage he gets is $32,000 on a monthly basis but he refused to get any of that money.
Instead, Pope Francis decided to either donate this money to the church, use it to endow a foundation, placed in trust or pass it on to a family member. Pope Francis has in fact never received money from the church, even before he was named as the new pope. In 2001, the Vatican were the ones who confirmed that Pope Francis has always remained true to his Jesuit philosophy.
Despite this, the pope does have many assets that come with the job and that can definitely be considered when we are talking about his net-worth. Currently, Pope Francis is worth an estimated $16 million due to all the assets he enjoys from his position as the pope of the catholic church.
Who was the youngest pope ever?
Early life – Benedict was the son of Count Alberic III of Tusculum, He was closely related to several popes, being a nephew of Benedict VIII and John XIX, grandnephew of John XII, great-grandnephew of John XI, first cousin twice removed of Benedict VII, and possibly a distant relative of Sergius III,
Who was pope when Jesus was alive?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Pope Saint Julius I|
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||6 February 337|
|Papacy ended||12 April 352|
|Born||280 AD Rome, Western Roman Empire|
|Died||12 April 352 Rome, Western Roman Empire|
|Feast day||12 April|
|Venerated in||Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church|
|Other popes named Julius|
Pope Julius I was the bishop of Rome from 6 February 337 to his death on 12 April 352. He is notable for asserting the authority of the pope over the Arian Eastern bishops, as well as setting December 25 as the official birthdate of Jesus,
Why was the first pope crucified
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter This dramatic scene depicts the crucifixion of Saint Peter, one of the twelve Apostles and the first Bishop of Rome. The figure to the left of Saint Peter holds a key, a traditional symbol of this Saint. His execution was ordered by the Roman Emperor Nero, who blamed the city’s Christians for a terrible fire that had ravaged Rome.
- Peter requested to be crucified upside down, as he felt unworthy to die in the same manner as Christ.
- José Antolínez (1635-1675) captures Peter’s vulnerability, depicting him as almost naked, thin and frail.
- Peter is bound to the cross rather than nailed to it and three figures heave it into position, as a soldier wearing armour and carrying a red flag watches from his horse on the left.
Despite the tense nature of the scene, the crowd of men, women, and children surrounding Peter seem largely indifferent. : The Crucifixion of Saint Peter
Why do Catholics pray to Mary?
– Answered by Father Johann Roten, S.M. Q: Why do Catholics pray to Mary? A: For Catholics, there are different types of Marian prayer that reflect different intentions. Reciting the ” Magnificat,” for example, is a way to praise God as Mary did. By reciting the ” Angelus,” you commemorate an event in salvation history, one in which Mary had a major role.
- Such commemorations are also made by the entire Church in the liturgical cycle.
- At Christmas, for example, the faithful recall Mary’s role in the birth of Christ.
- Prayers invoking Mary’s intercession for your own personal intentions are in a separate class, arousing controversy since the time of the Reformation in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The practice of invoking saintly people for their intercession before God in union with Jesus has roots in sacred Scripture. In this regard, Matthew 18:19-20 refers to saints on earth, and Revelation 18:20 refers to saints in heaven. In the early centuries of the Church, veneration and invocation was offered to those martyred for Christ.
The practice derives from the doctrine that the saints are united with Jesus in one mystical body ( Romans 12:5 ). The practice of calling on Mary for aid also appears to be very old in the Catholic Church. An ancient testimony of confidence in Mary is the prayer Sub Tuum, which historians place in the third century: We fly to your patronage, O holy Mother of God; despise not our petitions in our necessities, but deliver us always from all dangers, O glorious and blessed Virgin.
(Dictionary of Mary, p.143) This practice became an area of significant disagreement between Catholics and Protestants. After the crisis of the Reformation, the Catholic Council of Trent repeated traditional Christian teaching on the intercession of the saints, which applies preeminently to Mary: The saints who reign together with Christ, offer up their prayers to God for men;,
it is good and useful to invoke them suppliantly and, in order to obtain favors from God through his Son Jesus Christ our Lord who alone is our Redeemer and Saviour, to have recourse to their prayers, assistance and support. ( Theotokos, p.188) The Synod of Jerusalem held by the Orthodox Church proclaimed a similar position about a century after Trent.
Protestants counter that reliance on Mary and the saints detracts from reliance on Jesus Christ, who is our ‘one mediator’: For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man, Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony borne at the proper time.
- 1 Tm 2:2-5 – New American Bible ) A thorough examination of this topic by the Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue Commission may be found in The One Mediator, The Saints and Mary (Augsburg Press, 1992).
- An excellent contemporary Catholic reflection on the subject is found in chapter 3 of Pope John Paul II’s 1987 encyclical, Mother of the Redeemer,
A small subsection of paragraph 38 of that chapter is as follows: The Church knows and teaches with Saint Paul that there is only one mediator: “For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all.” (1 Tm 2:5-6).
- The maternal role of Mary toward people in no way obscures or diminishes the unique mediation of Christ, but rather shows its power : it is mediation in Christ.
- Catholics do not pray to Mary as if she were God.
- Prayer to Mary is memory of the great mysteries of our faith (Incarnation, Redemption through Christ in the rosary), praise to God for the wonderful things he has done in and through one of his creatures (Hail Mary) and intercession (second half of the Hail Mary).
The latter is addressed to Mary not as to a vending machine but a support person helping us to discern the will of God in our lives. Mary is a volunteer, highly recommendable and recommended, but not a mandatory and inescapable passage. The Magnificat My being proclaims the greatness of the Lord, my spirit finds joy in God my Savior, For he has looked upon his servant in her lowliness; all ages to come shall call me blessed.
God who is mighty has done great things for me, holy is his name; His mercy is from age to age on those who fear him. He has shown might with his arm; he has confused the proud in their inmost thoughts. He has deposed the mighty from their thrones and raised the lowly to high places. The hungry he has given every good thing, while the rich he has sent empty away.
He has upheld Israel his servant, ever mindful of his mercy; Even as he promised our fathers, promised Abraham and his descendants forever. (Luke 1:46-55) The Angelus The angel of the Lord declared to Mary and she conceived by the Holy Spirit. (Recite the Hail Mary) Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it done to me according to your word.
(Hail Mary) And the Word was made Flesh and dwelled among us. (Hail Mary) Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God, That we may be worthy of the promises of Christ. Let us pray: Pour forth, we beseech you, O Lord, your grace into our hearts that we to whom the incarnation of Christ your son was made known by the message of an angel may, by his passion and cross, be brought to the glory of his resurrection, through Christ Our Lord.
Amen. Matthew 18:19-20 Again I tell you, if two of you join your voices on earth to pray for anything whatever, it shall be granted you by my Father in heaven. Where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in their midst. Revelation 18:20 Rejoice over her, you heavens, you saints, apostles and prophets! For God has exacted punishment from her on your account.
Romans 12:5 So we too, though many, are one body in Christ and individually members of one another.1 Timothy 2:5-6 And the truth is this: “God is one. One also is the mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all.” This truth was attested at the fitting time.
All About Mary includes a variety of content, much of which reflects the expertise, interpretations and opinions of the individual authors and not necessarily of the Marian Library or the University of Dayton. Please share feedback or suggestions with [email protected],
Which pope was jailed?
|Pope Servant of God Pius VII|
|Bishop of Rome|
|Portrait by Thomas Lawrence, 1819|
|Papacy began||14 March 1800|
|Papacy ended||20 August 1823|
|Ordination||21 September 1765|
|Consecration||21 December 1782 by Francesco Saverio de Zelada|
|Created cardinal||14 February 1785 by Pius VI|
|Born||Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti 14 August 1742 Cesena, Papal States|
|Died||20 August 1823 (aged 81) Rome, Papal States|
|Motto||Aquila Rapax (“Rapacious eagle”)|
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Pius|
Pope Pius VII ( Italian : Pio VII ; born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti ; 14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in August 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk of the Order of Saint Benedict in addition to being a well-known theologian and bishop.
Chiaramonti was made Bishop of Tivoli in 1782, and resigned that position upon his appointment as Bishop of Imola in 1785. That same year, he was made a cardinal, In 1789, the French Revolution took place, and as a result a series of anti-clerical governments came into power in the country. In 1798, during the French Revolutionary Wars, French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Rome and captured Pope Pius VI, taking him as a prisoner to France, where he died in 1799.
The following year, after a sede vacante period lasting approximately six months, Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy, taking the name Pius VII. Pius at first attempted to take a cautious approach in dealing with Napoleon. With him he signed the Concordat of 1801, through which he succeeded in guaranteeing religious freedom for Catholics living in France, and was present at his coronation as Emperor of the French in 1804.
In 1809, however, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon once again invaded the Papal States, resulting in his excommunication through the papal bull Quum memoranda, Pius VII was taken prisoner and transported to France. He remained there until 1814 when, after the French were defeated, he was permitted to return to Rome, where he was greeted warmly as a hero and defender of the faith.
Pius lived the remainder of his life in relative peace. His papacy saw a significant growth of the Catholic Church in the United States, where Pius established several new dioceses. Pius VII died in 1823 at age 81. In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI began the process towards canonizing him as a saint, and he was granted the title Servant of God,
Who did the pope apologize
Pope Francis arrives for a meeting with indigenous communities, including First Nations, Metis and Inuit, at Our Lady of Seven Sorrows Catholic Church in Maskwacis, near Edmonton, Canada, on Monday. Gregorio Borgia/AP hide caption toggle caption Gregorio Borgia/AP Pope Francis arrives for a meeting with indigenous communities, including First Nations, Metis and Inuit, at Our Lady of Seven Sorrows Catholic Church in Maskwacis, near Edmonton, Canada, on Monday. Gregorio Borgia/AP MASKWACIS, Alberta — Pope Francis issued a historic apology Monday for the Catholic Church’s cooperation with Canada’s “catastrophic” policy of Indigenous residential schools, saying the forced assimilation of Native peoples into Christian society destroyed their cultures, severed families and marginalized generations in ways still being felt today.
- I am sorry,” Francis said, to applause from school survivors and Indigenous community members gathered at a former residential school south of Edmonton, Alberta, the first event of Francis’ weeklong “penitential pilgrimage” to Canada.
- The morning after he arrived in the country, Francis traveled to the lands of four Cree nations to pray at a cemetery.
Four chiefs then escorted the pontiff in his wheelchair to powwow ceremonial grounds where he delivered the long-sought apology and was given a feathered headdress. Pope Francis prays in front of Indigenous chiefs at the Ermineskin Cree Nation Cemetery in Maskwacis, Alberta, on Monday during his papal visit across Canada. Nathan Denette/The Canadian Press via AP hide caption toggle caption Nathan Denette/The Canadian Press via AP Pope Francis prays in front of Indigenous chiefs at the Ermineskin Cree Nation Cemetery in Maskwacis, Alberta, on Monday during his papal visit across Canada. Nathan Denette/The Canadian Press via AP “I humbly beg forgiveness for the evil committed by so many Christians against the Indigenous peoples,” Francis said near the site of the former Ermineskin Indian Residential School, now largely torn down. More than 150,000 native children in Canada were forced to attend state-funded Christian schools from the 19th century until the 1970s in an effort to isolate them from the influence of their homes and culture. The aim was to Christianize and assimilate them into mainstream society, which previous Canadian governments considered superior. The discoveries of hundreds of potential burial sites at former schools in the past year drew international attention to the legacy of the schools in Canada and their counterparts in the United States, The discoveries prompted Francis to comply with the truth commission’s call for him to apologize on Canadian soil for the Catholic Church’s role; Catholic religious orders operated 66 of the 139 schools in Canada. Many in the crowd Monday wore traditional dress, including colorful ribbon skirts and vests with Native motifs. Others donned orange shirts, which have become a symbol of residential school survivors, recalling the story of one woman whose favorite orange shirt, a gift from her grandmother, was confiscated when she arrived at a school and replaced with a uniform.
- Despite the solemnity of the event, the atmosphere seemed at times joyful: Chiefs processed into the site venue to a hypnotic drumbeat, elders danced and the crowd cheered and chanted war songs, victory songs and finally a healing song.
- One of the hosts of the event, Chief Randy Ermineskin of the Ermineskin Cree Nation, said some had chosen to stay away — and that that was understandable.
But he said it was nevertheless a historic, important day for his people. “My late family members are not here with us anymore, my parents went to residential school, I went to residential school,” he told The Associated Press as he waited for Francis to arrive. Indigenous people gather to see Pope Francis on his visit to Maskwacis, Alberta, on Monday during his papal visit across Canada. Jason Franson/The Canadian Press via AP hide caption toggle caption Jason Franson/The Canadian Press via AP Indigenous people gather to see Pope Francis on his visit to Maskwacis, Alberta, on Monday during his papal visit across Canada. Jason Franson/The Canadian Press via AP Felisha Crier Hosein traveled from Florida to attend in the place of her mother, who helped create the museum for the nearby Samson Cree Nation and had planned to attend, but died in May. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who last year voiced an apology for the “incredibly harmful government policy” in organizing the residential school system, was also attending along with the governor general and other officials. As part of a lawsuit settlement involving the government, churches and approximately 90,000 survivors, Canada paid reparations that amounted to billions of dollars being transferred to Indigenous communities. While the pope acknowledged institutional blame, he also made clear that Catholic missionaries were merely cooperating with and implementing the government policy of assimilation, which he termed the “colonizing mentality of the powers.” “I ask forgiveness, in particular, for the ways in which many members of the Church and of religious communities cooperated, not least through their indifference, in projects of cultural destruction and forced assimilation promoted by the governments of that time, which culminated in the system of residential schools,” he said.
He said the policy marginalized generations, suppressed Indigenous languages, severed families, led to physical, verbal, psychological and spiritual abuse and “indelibly affected relationships between parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren.” He called for further investigation, a possible reference to Indigenous demands for further access to church records and personnel files of the priests and nuns to identify who was responsible for the abuses.
“Although Christian charity was not absent, and there were many outstanding instances of devotion and care for children, the overall effects of the policies linked to the residential schools were catastrophic,” Francis said. ” What our Christian faith tells us is that this was a disastrous error, incompatible with the Gospel of Jesus Christ.” The first pope from the Americas was determined to make this trip, even though torn knee ligaments forced him to cancel a visit to Africa earlier this month. Pope Francis meets the Canadian Indigenous people as he arrives at Edmonton’s International airport, Canada, on Sunday. Gregorio Borgia/AP hide caption toggle caption Gregorio Borgia/AP Pope Francis meets the Canadian Indigenous people as he arrives at Edmonton’s International airport, Canada, on Sunday. Gregorio Borgia/AP The six-day visit — which will also include other former school sites in Alberta, Quebec City and Iqaluit, Nunavut, in the far north — follows meetings Francis held in the spring at the Vatican with delegations from the First Nations, Metis and Inuit.
- Those meetings culminated with an April 1 apology for the “deplorable” abuses committed by some Catholic missionaries in residential schools and Francis’ promise to deliver an apology in person on Canadian soil.
- Francis recalled that during in April, one of the delegations gave him a set of beaded moccasins as a symbol of the children who never returned from the schools, and asked him to return them in Canada.
Francis said in these months they had “kept alive my sense of sorrow, indignation and shame” but that in returning them he hoped they could also represent a path to walk together. Event organizers said they would do everything possible to make sure survivors could attend the event, busing them in and offering mental health counselors to be on hand knowing that the event could be traumatic for some. Francis acknowledged that the memories could trigger old wounds, and that even his mere presence there could be traumatic, but he said remembering was important to prevent indifference.
“It is necessary to remember how the policies of assimilation and enfranchisement, which also included the residential school system, were devastating for the people of these lands,” he said. Later Monday, Francis was scheduled to visit Sacred Heart Church of the First Peoples, a Catholic parish in Edmonton oriented toward Indigenous people and culture.
The church, whose sanctuary was dedicated last week after being restored from a fire, incorporates Indigenous language and customs in liturgy.
Which popes had children?
Popes who were legally married –
|Saint Peter||30/33–64/68||Mother-in-law (Greek πενθερά, penthera ) is mentioned in the Gospel verses Matthew 8:14–15, Luke 4:38, Mark 1:29–31, and who was healed by Jesus at her home in Capernaum,1 Cor.9:5 asks whether others have the right to be accompanied by Christian wives as does ” Cephas ” (Peter). Clement of Alexandria wrote: “When the blessed Peter saw his own wife led out to die, he rejoiced because of her summons and her return home, and called to her very encouragingly and comfortingly, addressing her by name, and saying, ‘Remember the Lord.’ Such was the marriage of the blessed, and their perfect disposition toward those dearest to them.”||Yes||Later legends, dating from the 6th century onwards, suggested that Peter had a daughter – identified as Saint Petronilla, This is likely to be a result of the similarity of their names.|
|Felix III||483–492||Widowed before his election as pope||Yes||Himself the son of a priest, he fathered two children, one of whom was the mother of Pope Gregory the Great,|
|Hormisdas||514–523||Widowed before he took holy orders||Yes||Father of Pope Silverius,|
|Adrian II||867–872||Married to Stephania before he took holy orders, she was still living when he was elected pope and resided with him in the Lateran Palace||Yes (a daughter)||His wife and daughter both resided with him until they were murdered by Eleutherius, brother of Anastasius Bibliothecarius, the Church’s chief librarian.|
|John XVII||1003||Married before his election as pope||Yes (three sons)||All of his children became priests.|
|Clement IV||1265–1268||Married before taking holy orders||Yes (two daughters)||Both children entered a convent|
|Honorius IV||1285–1287||Widowed before entering the clergy||Yes (at least two sons)|
Who was the last died pope?
On 31 December 2022, at 09:34 Central European Time (UTC+1), Pope Benedict XVI died at the Mater Ecclesiae Monastery in Vatican City at the age of 95.
Why didn t popes leave the Vatican for more than 50 years after 1870
Beginnings – As swept the in the 19th century, efforts to unify Italy were blocked in part by the, which ran through the middle of the peninsula and included the, The Papal States were able to fend off efforts to conquer them largely through the pope’s influence over the leaders of stronger European powers such as and,
- When Italian troops entered Rome, the Italian government reportedly intended to let the pope keep the part of Rome on the Vatican hill west of the, called due to its walls built by, a small remaining Papal State, but Pius IX refused.
- One week after entering Rome, the Italian troops had taken the entire city save for the territories of Vatican Hill; the inhabitants of Rome then voted to join Italy (those living in the Vatican were allowed to vote outside of the Leonine walls).
For the next 59 years, the popes refused to leave the Vatican in order to avoid any appearance of accepting the authority wielded by the Italian government over Rome as a whole. During this period, popes also refused to appear at or at the balcony of facing it.
Who rejected the pope
Why did Henry VIII break with Rome? – King Henry VIII’s break with the Catholic Church is one of the most far-reaching events in English history. During the Reformation, the King replaced the Pope as the Head of the Church in England, causing a bitter divide between Catholics and Protestants. But why did Henry make such a drastic split?
Was Pope Francis the first pope
Papacy (2013–present) – As cardinal As pope Elected at 76 years old, Francis was reported to be healthy and his doctors have said his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not significantly affect his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection.
In the past, one attack of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days. Francis is the first Jesuit pope. This was a significant appointment, because of the sometimes tense relations between the Society of Jesus and the Holy See, However, Bergoglio came in second to Cardinal Ratzinger on all the ballots in the 2005 conclave, and at the time appeared as the only other viable candidate.
He is also the first from the Americas, and the first from the Southern Hemisphere, Many media reported him as being the first non-European pope, but he is actually the 11th; the previous was Gregory III from Syria, who died in 741. Moreover, although Francis was not born in Europe, he is ethnically European ; his father and both of his mother’s parents are from northern Italy.
As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his immediate predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as “no frills”, noting that it is “his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration.” On the night of his election, he took a bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car.
The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff. At his first media audience, the Saturday after his election, the pope explained his papal name choice, citing Saint Francis of Assisi as “the man who gives us this spirit of peace, the poor man”, and he added “ow I would like a poor Church, and for the poor”.
- In addition to his native Spanish, he speaks fluent Italian (the official language of Vatican City and the “everyday language” of the Holy See) and German.
- He is also conversant in Latin (the official language of the Holy See), French, Portuguese, and English, and he understands the Piedmontese language and some Genoese,
Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings. He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments.
Who was the pope before John Paul the first?
Pope John Paul I
|Pope Blessed John Paul I|
|Papacy began||26 August 1978|
|Papacy ended||28 September 1978|
|Successor||John Paul II|
Who was the pope before
All the popes – full list
|Start year||End year||English name|
|1978||2005||Ven. John Paul II (John Paul the Great)|
|1978||1978||Servant of God John Paul I|
|1963||1978||Servant of God Paul VI|
Who was pope before Peter?
Background – The earliest witness to the episcopate of Linus was Irenaeus, who in c. AD 180 wrote that “the blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate”. According to the earliest succession lists of bishops of Rome, passed down by Irenaeus and Hegesippus and attested by the historian Eusebius, Linus was entrusted with his office by the apostles Peter and Paul after they had established the Christian church in Rome.
By this reckoning he might be considered therefore the first pope, but from the late 2nd or early 3rd century the convention began of regarding Peter as the first pope. Jerome described Linus as “the first after Peter to be in charge of the Roman Church” and Eusebius described him as “the first to receive the episcopate of the church at Rome, after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter”.
John Chrysostom wrote that “this Linus, some say, was second bishop of the Church of Rome after Peter”, while the Liberian Catalogue described Peter as the first bishop of Rome and Linus as his successor in the same office. The Liber Pontificalis also enumerated Linus as the second bishop of Rome after Peter, and stated that Peter consecrated two bishops, Linus and Anacletus, for the priestly service of the community, while devoting himself instead to prayer and preaching, and that it was Clement I to whom he entrusted the universal Church and whom he appointed as his successor.